Select Page

# Analytical method for determining cutting forces during orthogonal turning of C45 steel

## Analytical method for determining cutting forces during orthogonal turning of C45 steel

### ŚLUSARCZYK Łukasz, FRANCZYK Emilia

Abstract. The authors present a method for determining cutting forces during orthogonal turning of C45 steel. The method utilizes Oxley’s chip formation model as well as Johnson-Cook (J-C) constitutive equation and is based on the assumption that the tool is perfectly sharp and the chip formation process is continuous. It is also assumed that the heat exchange between the workpiece, the tool and the chip is carried out by conduction with negligibly small loses caused by convection and radiation and that the thickness of the chip contacting the rake face is constant. The adoption of the above assumptions, together with the knowledge of cutting parameters (including the tool rake angle) as well as of material constants of J-C equation, allows to estimate the thermal-mechanical state of the cutting process and to determine feed and tangential components of the cutting force. Average values of feed and tangent components of the cutting force are calculated using an algorithm implemented in the Matlab environment. The method is based on iterative determination of the minimum difference between stress values in the secondary shear zone. Considered tangential and normal stress values are expressed by formulas based on Oxley’s cutting mechanics and the J-C model. The cutting force components obtained in the described method have been compared with the results obtained during experimental studies and with the results obtained in computer simulations using the FEM numerical calculation method.

Keywords
Cutting Forces, Orthogonal Turning, Johnson-Cook Model

Published online 4/19/2023, 10 pages
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: ŚLUSARCZYK Łukasz, FRANCZYK Emilia, Analytical method for determining cutting forces during orthogonal turning of C45 steel, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 28, pp 1313-1322, 2023

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21741/9781644902479-142

The article was published as article 142 of the book Material Forming

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

References
[1] Goyal, S. Kumar, D. Shailendra, R. Suresh, R. Sharma, Studying Methods of Estimating Heat Generation at Three Different Zones in Metal Cutting, A Review of Analytical models, Int. J. Eng. Trend. Technol. 8 (2014) 532-545. https://doi.org/10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V8P296
[2] G. Hao, L. Zhanqiang, The heat partition into cutting tool at tool-chip contact interface during cutting process: a review, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 108 (2020) 393-411. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05404-9
[3] J. Davim, C. Maranhão, P. Faria, A. Abrao, J. Campos Rubio, L. Silva, Precision radial turning of AISI D2 steel, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 42 (2009) 842-849. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-008-1644-9
[4] Yun, L. Huaizhong, W. Jun, Further Development of Oxley’s Predictive Force Model for Orthogonal Cutting, Machin. Sci. Technol. 19 (2015) 86-111. https://doi.org/10.1080/10910344.2014.991026
[5] P.J. Arrazola, T. Özel, Investigations on the effects of friction modeling in finite element simulation of machining, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 52 (2010) 31-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2009.10.001
[6] T. Özel, The influence of friction models on finite element simulations of machining, Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manuf. 46 (2006) 518-530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2005.07.001
[7] W. Grzesik, M. Bartoszuk, P. Nieslony, Finite element modelling of temperature distribution in the cutting zone in turning processes with differently coated tools, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 164-165 (2005) 1204-1211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2005.02.136
[8] J. Ning, S. Y.Liang, Inverse identification of Johnson-Cook material constants based on modified chip formation model and iterative gradient search using temperature and force measurements, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 102 (2019) 2865-2876. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-03286-0
[9] L. Xiong, J. Wang, Y. Gan, B. Li, N. Fang, Improvement of algorithm and prediction precision of an extended Oxley’s theoretical model, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 77 (2015) 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-014-6361-y
[10] M. Aydın, Cutting temperature analysis considering the improved Oxley’s predictive machining theory, J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 38 (2016) 2435-2448. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-016-0514-x
[11] J.A. Williams, Mechanics of machining: an analytical approach to assessing machinability: By P.L.B. Oxley, published by Ellis Horwood, Chichester, 1989.
[12] D.I. Lalwani, N.K. Mehta, P.K. Jain, Extension of Oxley’s predictive machining theory for Johnson and Cook flow stress model, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209 (2009) 5305-5312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2009.03.020
[13] J.Ning, S.Y. Liang, Article Predictive Modeling of Machining Temperatures with Force-Temperature Correlation Using Cutting Mechanics and Constitutive Relation, Materials 12 (2019) 284. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12020284