Toxicity of Nanoparticles in Biological Systems


Toxicity of Nanoparticles in Biological Systems

Muhammad Umar Ijaz, Ali Akbar, Asma Ashraf, Muhammad Saqalein, Hammad Ahmad Khan, Sumreen Hayat, Saima Muzammil

Nanoparticles (NPs) are minute particles with sizes ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers. They are characterized by their unique physiochemical properties due to their small size, which makes them valuable in several fields such as medicine, electronics, energy and material science. They are also used for drug delivery, imaging, energy applications and improving material properties. However, the potential toxicity of NPs to biological systems has raised concerns in recent years. The toxicity of NPs to biological systems arises from their physiochemical properties and interactions with biological components. These interactions can lead to the induction of various cellular pathways, including oxidative stress (OS), inflammation, genotoxicity and immune dysregulation among others, which can result in cellular damage and adverse effects on various organs and tissues. The toxic effects of NPs can vary with their size, shape, surface charge, concentration, mode of administration, as well as the type of biological system being exposed. Therefore, understanding NPs-instigated toxicity is critical for safe and effective use in various applications. This chapter presents an overview of the toxicological effects of NPs on biological systems with a particular focus on the liver, kidney, reproductive and cardiovascular systems along with mechanisms that trigger toxicity in these organs. Furthermore, the chapter discusses the various routes of exposure of NPs and their biodistribution within the body including the factors that influence their distribution and accumulation in different tissues.

Nanoparticles, Toxicity, Nephrotoxicity, Hepatotoxicity, Reproductive Toxicity

Published online 2/10/2024, 22 pages

Citation: Muhammad Umar Ijaz, Ali Akbar, Asma Ashraf, Muhammad Saqalein, Hammad Ahmad Khan, Sumreen Hayat, Saima Muzammil, Toxicity of Nanoparticles in Biological Systems, Materials Research Foundations, Vol. 161, pp 245-266, 2024


Part of the book on Nanoparticle Toxicity and Compatibility

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