Stabilization of a swelling soil using three different chemical additives

Stabilization of a swelling soil using three different chemical additives

Tahar Ayadat, Ammar Noui, Layal Jradi, Danish Ahmed, Muhammad Ajmal, Andi Asiz

download PDF

Abstract. An expansive soil expands when water is added, and shrinks when it dries out. On construction sites, expansive soils can pose geotechnical engineering challenges. More financial loss is caused by expansive soil damage than by floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and earthquakes combined. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of stabilization of an expansive soil using three different chemical additives, in this case: white cement and nano-silica as admixture, waste granite dust, and a new liquid polymer soil stabilizer (i.e. liquid granite). This study investigated the effect of these stabilizing agents on the variation of soil consistency, linear shrinkage, and soil swelling behaviour. Three groups of tests were carried out as part of the experimental program. As part of the first group, tests were performed on expansive soil reinforced with 2%, 4%, 8%, and 10% of white cement combined with 2% of nano-silica. Another group of tests consisted of samples mixed with different percentages of granite powder (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%). In the third group, liquid granite as a soil stabilizer was blended with soil specimens at various concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). For all admixtures, the results showed a marked improvement in soil consistency, an important decrease in linear shrinkage, and a considerable reduction on the expansion index. Compared with the original bentonite clay, the swelling behaviour (expansion index) was reduced considerably by adding these three different chemical additives. Moreover, a correlation between the expansion index and the dosage of the different stabilizers was proposed.

Expansive Soil, Stabilizing, Nano-Silica, White Cement, Waste Granite, Liquid Granite

Published online 8/10/2023, 9 pages
Copyright © 2023 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: Tahar Ayadat, Ammar Noui, Layal Jradi, Danish Ahmed, Muhammad Ajmal, Andi Asiz, Stabilization of a swelling soil using three different chemical additives, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 31, pp 495-503, 2023


The article was published as article 51 of the book Advanced Topics in Mechanics of Materials, Structures and Construction

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

[1] Al-Mhaidib, A.I. (2002). Characteristics of Expansive Soil in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, King Saud University,
[2] Ashraf, M.A., Rahman, S.S., Faruk, M.O., Bashar, M.A. Determination of optimum cement content for stabilization of soft soil and durability analysis of soil stabilized with cement. Am. J. Civ. Eng. 6 (1), 39. (2018).
[3] Begum, A.S., Raju, G.P., Prasad, D.S.V., Kumar, M.A. Influence of TerraZyme on compaction and consolidation properties of expansive soil. In: Problematic Soils and Geo-environmental Concerns. Springer, pp. 525-535. (2021).
[4] Pooni, J., Robert, D., Giustozzi, F., Setunge, S., Venkatesan, S. Stabilization of expansive soils subjected to moisture fluctuations in unsealed road pavements. Int. J. Pavement Eng. 23 (3). (2022).
[5] Barman, D. And Dash, S.K. Stabilization of expansive soils using chemical additives: A review, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp. 1319-1342. (2022).
[6] Ramaji, A.E. A Review on the Soil Stabilization Using Low-Cost Methods. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 8(4):2193-2196. (2012).
[7] IMG. Liquid Granite: Indispensable, Multi-Purpose, Emergency Repair Material, Tero Tech, TS 25.09.19. (2019).
[8] PCA (Portland Cement Association). Soil-cement laboratory handbook. Skokie, IL: PCA. (1992).
[9] Kolay P.K. and Ramesh, K.C. Reduction of Expansive Index, Swelling and Compression Behavior of Kaolinite and Bentonite Clay with Sand and Class C Fly Ash, February 2016, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, (2016).
[10] Ruwaih, I. A. Experiences with Expansive Soils in Saudi Arabia, Proceedings of Sixth International Conference on Expansive Soils, New Delhi, India, pp. 317-322. (1987).
[11] Bhattacharja, S. and Bhatty J. I. Comparative performance of Portland cement and lime stabilization of moderate to high plasticity clay soils. Skokie, IL: Portland Cement Association. (2003).
[12] Li, S., White, D. and Vennapusa, P. Cement stabilization of embankment materials. Ames, IA: Iowa State Univ. Digital Repository. (2015).
[13] Beetham, P., T. Dijkstra, N. Dixon, P. Fleming, Hutchison, R. and Bateman, J. Lime stabilization for earthworks: A UK perspective. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. Ground Improv. 168 (2): 81-95. (2015).