The Applicability of Eggshell Waste as a Sustainable Biosorbent Medium in Wastewater Treatment – A Review


The Applicability of Eggshell Waste as a Sustainable Biosorbent Medium in Wastewater Treatment – A Review

P. Musonge, C. Harripersadth

The exemplary properties of eggshell waste have gained a lot of attention due to its chemical composition and bio-degradable features making it a suitable choice to be used in wastewater treatment. The use of biosorption as an alternate treatment technology to conventional processes such as chemical precipitation and ion exchange is seen as a promising solution to the many drawbacks experienced by conventional processes. Furthermore, due to higher imposed environmental legislations, eco-friendly and low-cost considerations have set the momentum in the search for biosorbents of this nature. With the circular economy being the focal point of industrial operations, eggshell waste is a highly promising biosorbent due to its non-toxicity properties and its ability to be converted from a waste material to a valuable product. In this review paper, fundamental aspects of biosorption will be discussed where the main focus will lie in qualitatively examining the properties of eggshell waste, binding mechanisms, kinetics and isotherm modelling that make it an attractive option to be used in the biosorptive process. Finally, a summary of the important considerations for future research work in this field is presented.

Water Treatment, Bio-Materials, Eggshell Waste, Sustainability, Circular Economy

Published online 12/15/2020, 33 pages

Citation: P. Musonge, C. Harripersadth, The Applicability of Eggshell Waste as a Sustainable Biosorbent Medium in Wastewater Treatment – A Review, Materials Research Foundations, Vol. 91, pp 171-203, 2021


Part of the book on Advances in Wastewater Treatment I

[1] A. Abdolali, W. S. Guo, H. H. Ngo, S. S. Chen, N. C. Nguyen, and K. L. Tung, Typical lignocellulosic wastes and by-products for biosorption process in water and wastewater treatment: a critical review, Bioresource technology, vol. 160, pp. 57-66, 2014.
[2] S. Senthikumaar, Bharathi, S., Nithyanandhi, D., and Subburaam, C.V. , Biosorption of toxic heavy metals from aqueous solutions Bioresource Technology, vol. 75, pp. 163-165, 2000.
[3] D. Lakherwal, Adsorption of Heavy Metals: A Review International Journal of Environmental Research and Development, vol. 4, no. 41-48, 2014.
[4] A. Ronda, M. A. Martín-Lara, E. Dionisio, G. Blázquez, and M. Calero, Effect of lead in biosorption of copper by almond shell, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 466-473, 2013.
[5] A. Luptakova, S. Ubaldini, P. Fornari, and E. Macingova, Physical, chemical l chemical methods for treatment of Acid mine drainage, Journal of Chemical Engineering Transactions, 2012.
[6] R. W. Gaikwad, V. S. S. Sapkal, and R. S. S. Sapkal, Ion exchange system design for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage wastewater, Acta Montanistica Slovaca, pp. 298-304, 2010.
[7] D. C. Buzzi, L. S. Viegas, F. P. C. Silvas, and D. C. R. Espinosa, The use of Microfiltration and electrodialysis for Treatment of Acid Mine drainage, IMWA, pp. 287-292, 2011.
[8] G. S. Simate and S. Ndlovu, The removal of heavy metals in a packed bed column using immobilized cassava peel waste biomass, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 21, pp. 635-643, 2015.
[9] Z. Aksu and F. Gönen, Biosorption of phenol by immobilized activated sludge in a continuous packed bed: prediction of breakthrough curves, Process Biochem., vol. 5, no. 39, pp. 599-613, 2004.
[10] E. Malkoc, Y. Nuhoglu, and Y. Abali, Cr(VI) adsorption by waste acorn of Quercus ithaburensis in fixed beds: Prediction of breakthrough curves, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 61-68, 2006.
[11] South African Poultry Association
[12] SAPA. (2015). South African Poultry Association. Available:
[13] D. Oliveira, P. Benelli, and E. Amante, A literature review on adding value to solid residues: Egg shells. 2013, pp. 42-47.
[14] H. J. a. L. Choi , S.M., Heavy metal removal from acid mine drainage by calcined eggshell and microalgae hybrid system, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 22, pp. 13404-13411, 2015.
[15] J. Carvalho, A. Ribeiro, J. Graça, J. Araújo, C. Vilarinho, and F. Castro, Adsorption Process Onto An Innovative Eggshell-Derived Low-Cost Adsorbent In Simulated Effluent And Real Industrial Effluents. 2011.
[16] A. King ori, A Review of the uses of poultry eggshells and shell membranes. 2011, pp. 908-912.
[17] Z. Zhang, A. M Gonzalez, E. Davies, and Y. Liu, Agricultural Wastes. 2012, pp. 1386-1406.
[18] J. V. Flores-Cano, R. Leyva-Ramos, J. Mendoza-Barron, R. M. Guerrero-Coronado, A. Aragón-Piña, and G. J. Labrada-Delgado, Sorption mechanism of Cd(II) from water solution onto chicken eggshell, Applied Surface Science, vol. 276, pp. 682-690, 2013/07/01/ 2013.
[19] M. T. Hincke, Y. Nys, J. Gautron, K. Mann, and A. B. Rodriguez-Navarro, The eggshell: Structure, composition and mineralization., Front. Biosci. Special Edition on Biomineralization, vol. 17, pp. 1266-1280, 2012.
[20] T. Nakano, N. I Ikawa, and L. Ozimek, Chemical composition of chicken eggshell and shell membranes. 2003, pp. 510-4.
[21] W. T. Tsai, J. M. Yang, C. W. Lai, Y. H. Cheng, C. C. Lin, and C. W. Yeh, Characterization and adsorption properties of eggshells and eggshell membrane, Bioresource Technology, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 488-493, 2006/02/01/ 2006.
[22] A. Mittal, M. Teotia, R. K. Soni, and J. Mittal, Applications of egg shell and egg shell membrane as adsorbents: A review, Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 223, pp. 376-387, 2016/11/01/ 2016.
[23] O. A. A. Eletta, O. A. Ajayi, O. O. Ogunleye, and I. C. Akpan, Adsorption of cyanide from aqueous solution using calcinated eggshells: Equilibrium and optimisation studies, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1367-1375, 2016/03/01/ 2016.
[24] B. Pant, M. Park, H.-Y. Kim, and S.-J. Park, CdS-TiO2 NPs decorated carbonized eggshell membrane for effective removal of organic pollutants: A novel strategy to use a waste material for environmental remediation, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 699, pp. 73-78, 2017/03/30/ 2017.
[25] N. Y. Mezenner and A. Bensmaili, Kinetics and thermodynamic study of phosphate adsorption on iron hydroxide-eggshell waste, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 87-96, 2009/04/15/ 2009.
[26] D. Liao et al., Removal of lead(II) from aqueous solutions using carbonate hydroxyapatite extracted from eggshell waste, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 126-130, 2010/05/15/ 2010.
[27] O. Habeeb, R. Kanthasamy, G. Ali, R. Yunus, and O. Olalere, Kinetic, Isotherm and Equilibrium Study of Adsorption of Hydrogen Sulfide From Wastewater Using Modified Eggshells. 2017, pp. 13-25.
[28] K. Chojnacka, Biosorption of Cr(III) ions by eggshells, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 167-173, 2005/05/20/ 2005.
[29] R. Kobiraj, N. Gupta, A. K. Kushwaha, and M. C. Chattopadhyaya, Determination of equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solutions onto eggshell powder, Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, vol. 19, pp. 26-31, 2012.
[30] M. A. Zulfikar and H. Setiyanto, Study of the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamic for the removal of Congo Red from aqueous solution using powdered eggshell. 2013, pp. 1671-1678.
[31] M. H. Ehrampoush, G. Ghanizadeh, and M. H. Ghaneian, Equilibrium And Kinetics Study Of Reactive Red 123 Dye Removal From Aqueous Solution By Adsorption On Eggshell Iran. J. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 101-108, 2011.
[32] R. Slimani et al., Calcined eggshells as a new biosorbent to remove basic dye from aqueous solutions: Thermodynamics, kinetics, isotherms and error analysis, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1578-1587, 2014/07/01/ 2014.
[33] M. A. Al-Ghouti and N. R. Salih, Application of eggshell wastes for boron remediation from water, Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 256, pp. 599-610, 2018/04/15/ 2018.
[34] T. Witoon, Characterization of calcium oxide derived from waste eggshell and its application as CO2 sorbent, Ceramics International, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 3291-3298, 2011/12/01/ 2011.
[35] R. Slimani et al., Calcined eggshells as a new biosorbent to remove basic dye from aqueous solutions: Thermodynamics, kinetics, isotherms and error analysis, Journal Of The Taiwan Institute Of Chemical Engineers, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1578-1587, 2014.
[36] M. Baláž, A. Zorkovská, M. Fabián, V. Girman, and J. Briančin, Eggshell biomaterial: Characterization of nanophase and polymorphs after mechanical activation, Advanced Powder Technology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1597-1608, 2015/11/01/ 2015.
[37] M. Baláž, J. Ficeriová, and J. Briančin, Influence of milling on the adsorption ability of eggshell waste, Chemosphere, vol. 146, pp. 458-471, 2016/03/01/ 2016.
[38] W. Zheng et al., Adsorption of Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by carbonate hydroxylapatite derived from eggshell waste, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 534-539, 2007/08/17/ 2007.
[39] S. Ramesh et al., Direct conversion of eggshell to hydroxyapatite ceramic by a sintering method, Ceramics International, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 7824-7829, 2016/05/01/ 2016.
[40] S. Shan, Ma, A., Hu ,Y., Jia ,Q., Wang, Y. and Peng, J., Development of sintering-resistant CaO-based sorbent derived from eggshells and bauxite tailings for cyclic CO2 capture, Environmental Pollution, no. 208, pp. 546-552, 2016.
[41] M. Ahmad, Y. Hashimoto, D. H. Moon, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Ok, Immobilization of lead in a Korean military shooting range soil using eggshell waste: An integrated mechanistic approach, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 209-210, pp. 392-401, 2012/03/30/ 2012.
[42] S. He et al., Investigation of CaO-based sorbents derived from eggshells and red mud for CO2 capture, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 701, pp. 828-833, 2017/04/15/ 2017.
[43] M. Oliveira, A. Araújo, G. Azevedo, M. F. R. Pereira, I. C. Neves, and A. V. Machado, Kinetic and equilibrium studies of phosphorous adsorption: Effect of physical and chemical properties of adsorption agent, Ecological Engineering, vol. 82, pp. 527-530, 2015/09/01/ 2015.
[44] L. Giraldo and J. C. Moreno-Piraján, Study of adsorption of phenol on activated carbons obtained from eggshells, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 106, pp. 41-47, 2014/03/01/ 2014.
[45] E. Panagiotou et al., Turning calcined waste egg shells and wastewater to Brushite: Phosphorus adsorption from aqua media and anaerobic sludge leach water, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 178, pp. 419-428, 2018/03/20/ 2018.
[46] W.-T. Tsai, K.-J. Hsien, H.-C. Hsu, C.-M. Lin, K.-Y. Lin, and C.-H. Chiu, Utilization of ground eggshell waste as an adsorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution, Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 1623-1629, 2008/04/01/ 2008.
[47] T. E. Köse and B. Kıvanç, Adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solutions using calcined waste eggshell, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 178, pp. 34-39, 2011/12/15/ 2011.
[48] M. A. Renu, K. Singh, S. Upadhyaya, and R. K. Dohare, Removal of heavy metals from wastewater using modified agricultural adsorbents, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 10534-10538, 2017/01/01/ 2017.
[49] H. J. Park, S. W. Jeong, J. K. Yang, B. G. Kim, and S. M. Lee, Removal of heavy metals using waste eggshell, Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1436-1441, 2007/01/01/ 2007.
[50] M. Ahmad, Usman, A.R.A., Lee, S.S., Kim, S.C., Joo, J.H., Yang, J.E. and Ok, Y.S., Eggshell and coral wastes as low cost sorbents for the removal of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ from aqueous solutions, Journal Of Industrial And Engineering Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 198-204, 2012.
[51] V. S. Munagapati and D.-S. Kim, Equilibrium isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics studies for congo red adsorption using calcium alginate beads impregnated with nano-goethite, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 141, pp. 226-234, 2017/07/01/ 2017.
[52] G. Asgari and A. Dayari, Experimental dataset on acid treated eggshell for removing cyanide ions from synthetic and industrial wastewaters, Data in Brief, vol. 16, pp. 442-452, 2018/02/01/ 2018.
[53] X. Guo et al., Layered double hydroxide/eggshell membrane: An inorganic biocomposite membrane as an efficient adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 166, no. 1, pp. 81-87, 2011/01/01/ 2011.
[54] M. Elkady, A. Ibrahim, and M. Abd El-Latif, Assessment of the adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic for the potential removal of reactive red dye using eggshell biocomposite beads. 2011, pp. 412-423.
[55] J. H. Chen et al., Recovery and investigation of Cu(II) ions by tannin immobilized porous membrane adsorbent from aqueous solution, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 273, pp. 19-27, 2015/08/01/ 2015.
[56] G. De Angelis, L. Medeghini, A. M. Conte, and S. Mignardi, Recycling of eggshell waste into low-cost adsorbent for Ni removal from wastewater, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 164, pp. 1497-1506, 2017/10/15/ 2017.
[57] J. S. Markovski et al., Arsenate adsorption on waste eggshell modified by goethite, α-MnO2 and goethite/α-MnO2, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 237, pp. 430-442, 2014/02/01/ 2014.
[58] S. Hosseini, F. Eghbali Babadi, S. Masoudi Soltani, M. K. Aroua, S. Babamohammadi, and A. Mousavi Moghadam, Carbon dioxide adsorption on nitrogen-enriched gel beads from calcined eggshell/sodium alginate natural composite, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, vol. 109, pp. 387-399, 2017/07/01/ 2017.
[59] W. I. Mortada, I. M. M. Kenawy, A. M. Abdelghany, A. M. Ismail, A. F. Donia, and K. A. Nabieh, Determination of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ in biological and food samples by FAAS after preconcentration with hydroxyapatite nanorods originated from eggshell, Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 52, pp. 288-296, 2015/07/01/ 2015.
[60] H. Wang et al., Engineered biochar derived from eggshell-treated biomass for removal of aqueous lead, Ecological Engineering, 2017/07/08/ 2017.
[61] Y. Mao, Mingming, S., Xu, C., Yanfang, F., Jinzhong, W., Kuan, L., Da, T., Manqiang, L., Jun, W., Schwab, A.P., and Xin, J., Feasibility of sulfate-calcined eggshells for removing pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes from landfill leachates, Waste Management, vol. 63, pp. 275-283, 2017/05/01/ 2017.
[62] S. Lunge, D. Thakre, S. Kamble, N. Labhsetwar, and S. Rayalu, Alumina supported carbon composite material with exceptionally high defluoridation property from eggshell waste, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 237-238, pp. 161-169, 2012/10/30/ 2012.
[63] E. N. Seyahmazegi, R. Mohammad-Rezaei, and H. Razmi, Multiwall carbon nanotubes decorated on calcined eggshell waste as a novel nano-sorbent: Application f or anionic dye Congo red removal, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 109, pp. 824-834, 2016/05/01/ 2016.
[64] O. Kaplan Ince, M. Ince, V. Yonten, and A. Goksu, A food waste utilization study for removing lead(II) from drinks, Food Chemistry, vol. 214, pp. 637-643, 2017/01/01/ 2017.
[65] A. E. Burakov et al., Adsorption of heavy metals on conventional and nanostructured materials for wastewater treatment purposes: A review, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 148, pp. 702-712, 2018/02/01/ 2018.
[66] I. Anastopoulos and G. Z. Kyzas, Agricultural peels for dye adsorption: A review of recent literature, Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 200, pp. 381-389, 2014/12/01/ 2014.
[67] Y. Jin et al., Batch and fixed-bed biosorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solution using immobilized Pleurotus ostreatus spent substrate, Chemosphere, vol. 191, pp. 799-808, 2018/01/01/ 2018.
[68] I. Morosanu, C. Teodosiu, C. Paduraru, D. Ibanescu, and L. Tofan, Biosorption of lead ions from aqueous effluents by rapeseed biomass, NEW BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 39, pp. 110-124, 2017.
[69] C. E. R. Barquilha, E. S. Cossich, C. R. G. Tavares, and E. A. Silva, Biosorption of nickel(II) and copper(II) ions in batch and fixed-bed columns by free and immobilized marine algae Sargassum sp, Journal Of Cleaner Production, vol. 150, pp. 58-64, 2017.
[70] S. Guiza, Biosorption of heavy metal from aqueous solution using cellulosic waste orange peel, Ecological Engineering, vol. 99, pp. 134-140, 2017/02/01/ 2017.
[71] K. Y. Foo and B. H. Hameed, An overview of dye removal via activated carbon adsorption process, Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 19, no. 1-3, pp. 255-274, 2010/07/01 2010.
[72] S. Gautam, P. Kumar, and A. Patra, Gautam et al 2014. 2015.
[73] S. Rangabhashiyam, N. Anu, M. S. Giri Nandagopal, and N. Selvaraju, Relevance of isotherm models in biosorption of pollutants by agricultural byproducts, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 398-414, 2014/03/01/ 2014.
[74] G. Blázquez, M. Calero, A. Ronda, G. Tenorio, and M. A. Martín-Lara, Study of kinetics in the biosorption of lead onto native and chemically treated olive stone, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 2754-2760, 2014/09/25/ 2014.
[75] S. Moussous, A. Selatnia, A. Merati, and G. A. junter, Batch cadmium(II) biosorption by an industrial residue of macrofungal biomass (Clitopilus scyphoides), Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 197, pp. 261-271, 2012/07/15/ 2012.
[76] N. Barka, M. Abdennouri, M. El Makhfouk, and S. Qourzal, Biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead onto eco-friendly dried cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 144-149, 2013/09/01/ 2013.
[77] L. Pelit, F. N. Ertaş, A. E. Eroğlu, T. Shahwan, and H. Tural, Biosorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by natural spider silk, Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 19, pp. 8807-8813, 2011/10/01/ 2011.
[78] A. Witek-Krowiak, Analysis of influence of process conditions on kinetics of malachite green biosorption onto beech sawdust, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 171, no. 3, pp. 976-985, 2011/07/15/ 2011.
[79] S. Qaiser, A. R. Saleemi, and M. Umar, Biosorption of lead from aqueous solution by Ficus religiosa leaves: Batch and column study, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 166, no. 2, pp. 998-1005, 2009.
[80] A. Verma, S. Kumar, and S. Kumar, Biosorption of lead ions from the aqueous solution by Sargassum filipendula: Equilibrium and kinetic studies, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 4587-4599, 2016.
[81] J. Park, S. W. Won, J. Mao, I. S. Kwak, and Y.-S. Yun, Recovery of Pd(II) from hydrochloric solution using polyallylamine hydrochloride-modified Escherichia coli biomass, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 181, no. 1, pp. 794-800, 2010/09/15/ 2010.
[82] F. Veglio and F. Beolchini, Removal of metals by biosorption: a review, Hydrometallurgy, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 301-316, 1997/03/01/ 1997.
[83] W. P. Putra et al., Biosorption of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Selected Waste Materials: Adsorption and Characterisation Studies, Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences, vol. Vol.04No.01, p. 11, 2014, Art. no. 43532.
[84] B. M. W. P. K. Amarasinghe and R. A. Williams, Tea Waste as a Low Cost Adsorbent for The Removal of Cu and Pb from Wastewater. 2007, pp. 299-309.
[85] A. Schaafsma, I. Pakan, G. J. H. Hofstede, F. A. Muskiet, E. Van Der Veer, and P. J. F. De Vries, Mineral, amino acid, and hormonal composition of chicken eggshell powder and the evaluation of its use in human nutrition, Poultry Science, vol. 79, no. 12, pp. 1833-1838, 2000.
[86] K. Vijayaraghavan, J, and M. Umid Chicken Eggshells Remove Pb(II) Ions from Synthetic Wastewater, Environmental Engineering Science, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 67-73, 2013.
[87] N. Das, Recovery of precious metals through biosorption – A review, Hydrometallurgy, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 180-189, 2010/06/01/ 2010.
[88] R. Gao and J. Wang, Effects of pH and temperature on isotherm parameters of chlorophenols biosorption to anaerobic granular sludge, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 145, no. 3, pp. 398-403, 2007/07/16/ 2007.
[89] U. Farooq, J. A. Kozinski, M. A. Khan, and M. Athar, Biosorption of heavy metal ions using wheat based biosorbents – A review of the recent literature, Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 14, pp. 5043-5053, 2010.
[90] K. C. Malakondaiah, D. A. Kalpana, D. A. Naidu, P. King, and V. S. R. K. Prasad, Low cost biosorbent for the removal of Cu (II) from aqueous solution, Journal of Environmental Science, vol. 5, pp. 363-368, 2010.
[91] J. He and J. P. Chen, A comprehensive review on biosorption of heavy metals by algal biomass: Materials, performances, chemistry, and modeling simulation tools, Bioresource Technology, vol. 160, pp. 67-78, 2014/05/01/ 2014.
[92] D. Senthilkumar, Ethiraj, A.S., Vimala, R., Ramalingam, C. and Jayanthi, S., Biosorption of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions: Kinetics and characterization studies, Scholars Research Library, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 205-213, 2015.
[93] Z. Tark, M. Ibrahim, and H. Madhloom, Eggshell Powder As An Adsorbent for Removal of Cu (II) and Cd (II) from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies. 2016, pp. 186-193.
[94] R. Bhaumik, Mondal, N.K., Das ,B., Roy, P., Pal, K.C., Das,C., Banerjee, A. And Datta< J.K., Eggshell Powder as an Adsorbent for Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies, Journal of Chemistry, vol. 9, pp. 1457-1480, 2012. [95] N. Yeddou and A. Bensmaili, Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of iron adsorption by eggshells in a batch system: effect of temperature, Desalination, vol. 206, no. 1, pp. 127-134, 2007/02/05/ 2007. [96] M. A. Abdel-Khalek, M. K. Abdel Rahman, and A. A. Francis, Exploring the adsorption behavior of cationic and anionic dyes on industrial waste shells of egg, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 319-327, 2017/02/01/ 2017. [97] K. Belay, Removal of Methyl Orange from Aqueous Solutions Using Thermally Treated Egg Shell (Locally Available and Low Cost Biosorbent). 2015. [98] M. a. B. Kanyal, A.A., Removal of Heavy Metals from Water (Cu and Pb) Using Household Waste as an Adsorbent. 2015. [99] T. D. Mashangwa, Tekere, M. and Sibanda, T., Determination of the Efficacy of Eggshell as a Low-Cost Adsorbent for the Treatment of Metal Laden Effluents, Int Journal of Environ Res, vol. 11, pp. 175-188, 2017. [100] M. Baláž, Z. Bujňáková, P. Baláž, A. Zorkovská, Z. Danková, and J. Briančin, Adsorption of cadmium(II) on waste biomaterial, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 454, pp. 121-133, 2015/09/15/ 2015. [101] Y. S. Ok, S. S. Lee, W.-T. Jeon, S.-E. Oh, A. Usman, and D. H. Moon, Application of Eggshell Waste for the Immobilization of Cadmium and Lead in a Contaminated Soil, Environ Geochem Health, vol. 33 Suppl 1, pp. 31-9, 2011. [102] M. F. Elkady, A. M. Ibrahim, and M. M. A. El-Latif, Assessment of the adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic for the potential removal of reactive red dye using eggshell biocomposite beads, Desalination, vol. 278, no. 1, pp. 412-423, 2011/09/01/ 2011. [103] M. H. Ehrampoush, G. Ghanizadeh, and M. T. Ghaneian, Equilibrium And Kinetics Study Of Reactive Red 123 Dye Removal From Aqueous Solution By Adsorption On Eggshell. 2012, pp. 101-108. [104] M. Mohamad, Wei, T.C., Mohammad, R. and Wei, L.J., Optimization Of Operating Parameters By Responsesurface Methodology For Malachite Green Dye Removal Using Biochar Prepared From Eggshell, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 3621-3633, 2017. [105] D. Podstawczyk, A. Witek-Krowiak, K. Chojnacka, and Z. Sadowski, Biosorption of malachite green by eggshells: Mechanism identification and process optimization, Bioresource Technology, vol. 160, pp. 161-165, 2014/05/01/ 2014. [106] A. V. Borhade and A. S. Kale, Calcined eggshell as a cost effective material for removal of dyes from aqueous solution, Applied Water Science, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 4255-4268, 2017/12/01 2017. [107] P. S. Guru and S. Dash, Amino Acid Modified Eggshell Powder (AA-ESP)-A Novel Bio-Solid Scaffold for Adsorption of Some Styrylpyridinium Dyes, Journal of Dispersion Science & Technology, Article vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1099-1112, 2013. [108] A. a. V. Babuponnusami, S., Investigation on adsorption of dye (Reactive Red 35) on Egg shell powder, International Journal of ChemTech Research vol. 10, pp. 565-572 2017.