Chitosan: Structure, Properties and Applications



Chitosan: Structure, Properties and Applications

Volkan Ugraskan, Abdullah Toraman, Afife Binnaz Hazar Yoruç

Chitosan is a deacetylated form of chitin which is the second most renewable biopolymer in nature. Chitosan has many features like biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxic properties, adsorption and functioning properties which make it promising materials in many applications. This chapter focused on chemical, physical, physicochemical and mechanical properties of chitosan and chitosan-based materials first of all, right after their commercial applications and also, in conclusion, the adsorption capacity and adsorbent applications of chitosan and its derivatives. Finally, new trends and fields about chitosan-based materials were present.

Biopolymer, Chitin, Chitosan, Structure, Properties, Applications, Market Trends

Published online 7/1/2018, 28 pages


Part of the book on Chitosan-Based Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment

[1] A. Demir, N. Seventekin, Kitin, kitosan ve genel kullanım alanları. Tekstil Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi, 3 (2009) 92-103.
[2] Ö. İmamoğlu, Biyokontrolde doğal ürünlerin kullanılması; Kitosan. Türk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi, 68 (2011) 215-222.
[3] M. Rinaudo, Chitin and chitosan: properties and applications. Progress in polymer science, 31 (2006) 603-632.
[4] K. Ogawa, Effect of heating an aqueous suspension of chitosan on the crystallinity and polymorphs. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 55 (1991) 2375-2379.
[5] N. Cartier, A. Domard, H. Chanzy, Single crystals of chitosan. International journal of biological macromolecules, 12 (1990) 289-294.
[6] S. Islam, M.R. Bhuiyan, M. Islam, Chitin and chitosan: structure, properties and applications in biomedical engineering. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 25 (2017) 854-866.
[7] M.N.R. Kumar, A review of chitin and chitosan applications. Reactive and functional polymers, 46 (2006) 1-27.
[8] H. Tan, C.R. Chu, K.A. Payne and K.G. Marra, Injectable in situ forming biodegradable chitosan–hyaluronic acid based hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 30 (2009) 2499-2506.
[9] M. Vakili, M. Rafatullaha, B. Salamatinia, A.Z. Abdullah, M.H. Ibrahim, K.B. Tan, Z. Gholami and P. Amouzgar, Application of chitosan and its derivatives as adsorbents for dye removal from water and wastewater: A review. Carbohydrate polymers, 113 (2014) 115-130.
[10] M. Miya, R. Iwamoto, S. Yoshikawa and S. Mima, Ir spectroscopic determination of CONH content in highly deacylated chitosan. International journal of biological macromolecules, 2 (1980) 323-324.
[11] J. Brugnerotto, J. Lizardi, F.M. Goycoolea, W. Argu Èelles-Monal, J. DesbrieÁres and M. Rinaudo, An infrared investigation in relation with chitin and chitosan characterization. Polymer, 42 (2001) 3569-3580.
[12] A. Hirai, H. Odani, and A. Nakajima, Determination of degree of deacetylation of chitosan by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Polymer Bulletin, 26 (1991) 87-94.
[13] K.M. Vårum, M.W. Antohonsen, H. Grasdalen and O. Smidsrød, Determination of the degree of N-acetylation and the distribution of N-acetyl groups in partially N-deacetylated chitins (chitosans) by high-field nmr spectroscopy. Carbohydrate Research, 211 (1991) 17-23.
[14] S.C. Tan, E. Khor, T.K. Tan and S.M. Wong, The degree of deacetylation of chitosan: advocating the first derivative UV-spectrophotometry method of determination. Talanta, 45 (1998) 713-719.
[15] S. Paul, A. Jayan, C.S. Sasikumar and S.M. Cherian, Extraction and purification of chitosan from chitin isolated from sea prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 7 (2014).
[16] A.C. Wu, Determination of molecular-weght distribution of chitosan by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 128 (1976) 87-99.
[17] A. Domard, M. Rinaudo, Preparation and characterization of fully deacetylated chitosan. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 5 (1983) 49-52.
[18] Kasaai, M.R., J. Arul, and G. Charlet, Intrinsic viscosity–molecular weight relationship for chitosan. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 38 (2000) 2591-2598.<2591::AID-POLB110>3.0.CO;2-6
[19] V. Alexeev, E. A. Kelberg, G. A. Evmenenko, S. V. Bronnikov Improvement of the mechanical properties of chitosan films by the addition of poly (ethylene oxide). Polymer Engineering & Science, 40(2000) 1211-1215.
[20] S.F. Wang, L. Shen, W. D. Zhang, and Y. J. Tong, Preparation and mechanical properties of chitosan/carbon nanotubes composites. Biomacromolecules, 6 (2005) 3067-3072.
[21] F.S. Kittur, K.R. Kumar, and R.N. Tharanathan, Functional packaging properties of chitosan films. Zeitschrift für Lebensmitteluntersuchung und-Forschung A, 206 (1998) 44-47.
[22] A.T. Paulino, J. I. Simionato, J. C. Garcia and J. Nozaki, Characterization of chitosan and chitin produced from silkworm crysalides. Carbohydrate Polymers, 64 (2006) 98-103.
[23] J. Sakamoto, J.Sugiyama, S. Kimura, T. Imai, T. Itoh, T. Watanabe, and S. Kobayashi, Artificial chitin spherulites composed of single crystalline ribbons of α-chitin via enzymatic polymerization. Macromolecules, 33 (2000) 4155-4160.
[24] W. Helbert, J. Sugiyama, High-resolution electron microscopy on cellulose II and α-chitin single crystals. Cellulose, 5 (1998) 113-122.
[25] K. Rudall, W. Kenchington, The chitin system. Biological Reviews, 48 (1973) 597-633.
[26] I. Younes, M. Rinaudo, Chitin and chitosan preparation from marine sources. Structure, properties and applications. Marine drugs, 13 (2015) 1133-1174.
[27] A. Sahu, P. Goswami, and U. Bora, Microwave mediated rapid synthesis of chitosan. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 20 (2009) 171-175.
[28] P. Nahar, U. Bora, Microwave-mediated rapid immobilization of enzymes onto an activated surface through covalent bonding. Analytical biochemistry, 328 (2004) 81-83.
[29] P.K. Dutta, J. Dutta, and V. Tripathi, Chitin and chitosan: Chemistry, properties and applications, 63 (2004) 20-31.
[30] Chitosan Market Size To Reach USD 17.84 Billion By 2025. 2017, Grand View Research.
[31] Chitosan Market size worth $7.9bn by 2024. 2016, Global Market Insights, Inc.
[32] Chitin and Chitosan Derivatives Market Trend. 2016, Global Industry Analysis Inc.
[33] M.E. Badawy, E.I. Rabea, A biopolymer chitosan and its derivatives as promising antimicrobial agents against plant pathogens and their applications in crop protection. International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, (2011).
[34] E.I. Rabea, M.E.T. Badawy, C. V. Stevens, G. Smagghe, and W. Steurbaut, Chitosan as antimicrobial agent: applications and mode of action. Biomacromolecules, 4 (2003) 1457-1465.
[35] L. Orzali, B. Corsi, C. Forni and L. Riccioni, Chitosan in agriculture: a new challenge for managing plant disease, in Biological Activities and Application of Marine Polysaccharides. (2017).
[36] S. Boonlertnirun, C. Boonraung, and R. Suvanasara, Application of chitosan in rice production. Journal of metals, materials and minerals, 18 (2017).
[37] E. G. Lizárraga-Paulín, S. P. M. -Castro, E. M. -Martínez, A. V. L. -Sagahón and I. T. -Pacheco, Maize seed coatings and seedling sprayings with chitosan and hydrogen peroxide: their influence on some phenological and biochemical behaviors. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 14 (2013) 87-96.
[38] D. Zeng, X. Luo, and R. Tu, Application of bioactive coatings based on chitosan for soybean seed protection. International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, (2012).
[39] S. Hirano, C. Itakura, H. Seino, Y.Akiyama, I. Nonaka, N. Kanbara, and T. Kawakami, Chitosan as an ingredient for domestic animal feeds. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 38 (1990) 1214-1217.
[40] S. Swiatkiewicz, M. Swiatkiewicz, A. A. -Wlosek and D. Jozefiak, Chitosan and its oligosaccharide derivatives (chito‐oligosaccharides) as feed supplements in poultry and swine nutrition. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, 99 (2015) 1-12.
[41] R. Sánchez, G. B. Stringari, J. M. Franco, C. Valencia and C. Gallegos, Use of chitin, chitosan and acylated derivatives as thickener agents of vegetable oils for bio-lubricant applications. Carbohydrate polymers, 85 (2011) 705-714.
[42] X. Li and W. Xia, Effects of chitosan on the gel properties of salt-soluble meat proteins from silver carp. Carbohydrate Polymers, 82 (2010) 958-964.
[43] A.A. Tayel, Microbial chitosan as a biopreservative for fish sausages. International journal of biological macromolecules, 2016. 93: p. 41-46.
[44] F. Karadeniz and S.-K. Kim, Antidiabetic activities of chitosan and its derivatives: A mini review, in Advances in food and nutrition research. Elsevier (2014) 33-44.
[45] M. Sayed, M. T. Islam, M. M. Haque, M. J. H. Shah, R. Ahmed, M. N. Siddiqui and M. A. Hossain, Dietary effects of chitosan and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) on the performance and serum lipid profile of broiler chicks. South African Journal of Animal Science, 45 (2015) 429-440.
[46] C. Z. X. Lifang, Moisturizing Property of Oligochitosan and Its Application in Cosmetics. Flavour Fragrance Cosmetics, 6 (2011) 004.
[47] Y.K. Deshmukh and S. Sao, Chitin and Chitosan–Most Convenient Natural Matter That Use In Different Useful Ways. Journal of Industrial Pollution Control, 30 (2014) 213-214.
[48] S. Pokhrel, P.N. Yadav and R. Adhikari, Applications of chitin and chitosan in industry and medical science: a review. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology, 16 (2016) 99-104.
[49] A. Jimtaisong and N. Saewan, Use of Chitosan and its Derivatives in Cosmetics. Chemistry, 9 (2014) 6.
[50] J. Huang, Z. H. Cheng, H. H. Xie, J. Y. Gong, J. Lou, Q. Ge, Y. J. Wang, Y. F. Wu, S. W. Liu, P. L. Sun and J. W. Mao, Effect of quaternization degree on physiochemical and biological activities of chitosan from squid pens. International journal of biological macromolecules, 70 (2014) 545-550.
[51] K.H. Waibel, B. Haney, M. Moore, B. Whisman and R. Gomez, Safety of chitosan bandages in shellfish allergic patients. Military medicine, 176 (2011) 1153-1156.
[52] G.P. De Castro, M. B. Dowling, M. Kilbourne, K. Keledjian, I. R. Driscoll, S. R. Raghavan, J. R. Hess, T. M. Scalea, and G. V. Bochicchio, Determination of efficacy of novel modified chitosan sponge dressing in a lethal arterial injury model in swine. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 72 (2012) 899-907.
[53] P. Sudheesh Kumar, V. K. Lakshmanan, T.V. Anilkumar, C. Ramya, P. Reshmi, A.G. Unnikrishnan, S. V. Nair, and R. Jayakumar, Flexible and microporous chitosan hydrogel/nano ZnO composite bandages for wound dressing: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 4 (2012) 2618-2629.
[54] T. Dai, M. Tanaka, Y. Y. Huang and M. R. Hamblin, Chitosan preparations for wounds and burns: antimicrobial and wound-healing effects. Expert review of anti-infective therapy, 9 (2011) 857-879.
[55] J. Zhang, W. Xia, P. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Tahirou, W. Gu and B. Li, Chitosan modification and pharmaceutical/biomedical applications. Marine drugs, 8 (2010) 1962-1987.
[56] A. Shukla, J. C. Fang, S. Puranam, F. R. Jensen, P. T. Hammond, Hemostatic multilayer coatings. Advanced Materials, 24 (2012) 492-496.
[57] R. Gu, W. Sun, H. Zhou, Z. Wu, Z. Meng, X. Zhu, Q. Tang, J. Dong and G. Dou, The performance of a fly-larva shell-derived chitosan sponge as an absorbable surgical hemostatic agent. Biomaterials, 31 (2010) 1270-1277.
[58] G. Lan, B. Lu, T. Wang, L. Wang, J. Chen, K. Yu, J. Liu, F. Dai and D. Wu, Chitosan/gelatin composite sponge is an absorbable surgical hemostatic agent. Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 136 (2015) 1026-1034.
[59] X. Huang, Y.Sun, J. Nie, W. Lua, L. Yang, Z. Zhang, H. Yin, Z. Wang and Q. Hu, Using absorbable chitosan hemostatic sponges as a promising surgical dressing. International journal of biological macromolecules, 75 (2015) 322-329.
[60] A. Bernkop-Schnürch and S. Dünnhaupt, Chitosan-based drug delivery systems. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 81 (2012) 463-469.
[61] X. Hu, H. P. Tan, D. Li and M. Y. Gu, Surface functionalisation of contact lenses by CS/HA multilayer film to improve its properties and deliver drugs. Materials Technology, 29 (2014) 8-13.
[62] N. Bhattarai, J. Gunn, and M. Zhang, Chitosan-based hydrogels for controlled, localized drug delivery. Advanced drug delivery reviews, 62 (2010) 83-99.
[63] R. K. Gautam, A. Mudhoo, G. Lofrano, M. C. Chattopadhyaya, Biomass-derived biosorbents for metal ions sequestration: adsorbent modification and activation methods and adsorbent regeneration. Journal of environmental chemical engineering, 2 (2014) 239-259.
[64] J. Zhao, Y. J. Zhu, J. Wu, J. Q. Zheng, X. Y. Zhao, B. Q. Lu and F. Chen, Chitosan-coated mesoporous microspheres of calcium silicate hydrate: environmentally friendly synthesis and application as a highly efficient adsorbent for heavy metal ions. Journal of colloid and interface science, 418 (2014) 208-215.
[65] Y. Lin, Y. Hong, Q. Song, Z. Zhang, J. Gao and T. Tao, Highly efficient removal of copper ions from water using poly (acrylic acid)-grafted chitosan adsorbent. Colloid and Polymer Science, 295 (2017) 627-635.
[66] F. Shen, J. Su, X. Zhang, K. Zhang and X. Qi, Chitosan-derived carbonaceous material for highly efficient adsorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution. International journal of biological macromolecules, 91 (2016) 443-449.
[67] C. Li, J. Cui, F. Wang, W. Peng and Y. He, Adsorption removal of Congo red by epichlorohydrin-modified cross-linked chitosan adsorbent. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57 (2016) 14060-14066.
[68] B. Hastuti, A. Masykur and S. Hadi. Modification of chitosan by swelling and crosslinking using epichlorohydrin as heavy metal Cr (VI) adsorbent in batik industry wastes. in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. (2016). IOP Publishing.
[69] H.J.Kumari, P. Krishnamoorthy, T.K. Arumugam, S. Radhakrishnan and D. Vasudevan, An efficient removal of crystal violet dye from waste water by adsorption onto TLAC/Chitosan composite: A novel low cost adsorbent. International journal of biological macromolecules, 96 (2017) 324-333.
[70] L. Zheng, C. Wang, Y. Shu, X. Yan and L. Li, Utilization of diatomite/chitosan–Fe (III) composite for the removal of anionic azo dyes from wastewater: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 468 (2015) 129-139.
[71] F. Zhao, E. Repo, M. Sillanpää, Y. Meng, D. Yin, and W. Z. Tang, Green synthesis of magnetic EDTA-and/or DTPA-cross-linked chitosan adsorbents for highly efficient removal of metals. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 54 (2015) 1271-1281.
[72] A. Li, R. Lin, C. Lin, B. He, T. Zheng, L. Lu and Y. Cao, An environment-friendly and multi-functional absorbent from chitosan for organic pollutants and heavy metal ion. Carbohydrate polymers, 148 (2016) 272-280.
[73] E. Vunain, A. Mishra and B. Mamba, Dendrimers, mesoporous silicas and chitosan-based nanosorbents for the removal of heavy-metal ions: a review. International journal of biological macromolecules, 86 (2016) 570-586.
[74] Y. Wen, J. Ma , J. Chen, C. Shen, H. Li and W. Liu, Carbonaceous sulfur-containing chitosan–Fe (III): a novel adsorbent for efficient removal of copper (II) from water. Chemical engineering journal, 259 (2015) 372-380.
[75] P. Dutta, S. Tripathi, G. K. Mehrotra and J. Dutta, Perspectives for chitosan based antimicrobial films in food applications. Food chemistry, 114 (2009) 1173-1182.
[76] J. Dutta, S. Tripathi and P. Dutta, Progress in antimicrobial activities of chitin, chitosan and its oligosaccharides: a systematic study needs for food applications. Revista de Agaroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, 18 (2012) 3-34.
[77] M. Cruz-Romero, T. Murphy, M. Morris, E. Cummins and J.P. Kerry, Antimicrobial activity of chitosan, organic acids and nano-sized solubilisates for potential use in smart antimicrobially-active packaging for potential food applications. Food Control, 34 (2013) 393-397.
[78] S. Tripathi, G. Mehrotra and P. Dutta, Physicochemical and bioactivity of cross-linked chitosan–PVA film for food packaging applications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 45 (2009) 372-376.
[79] A. Abdel-Mawgoud, A.S. Tantawy, M.A. El-Nemr and Y. Sassine, Growth and yield responses of strawberry plants to chitosan application. European Journal of Scientific Research, 39 (2010) 161.
[80] P.J. Chien and C.C. Chou, Antifungal activity of chitosan and its application to control post‐harvest quality and fungal rotting of Tankan citrus fruit (Citrus tankan Hayata). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86 (2006) 1964-1969.
[81] N. Benhamou, P. Lafontaine and M. Nicole, Induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium crown and root rot in tomato plants by seed treatment with chitosan. Phytopathology, 84 (1994) 1432-1444.
[82] A. El Ghaouth, J.Arul, C.Wilson and N.Benhamou, Ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects of the effect of chitosan on decay of bell pepper fruit. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 44 (1994) 417-432.
[83] A. Alishahi and M. Aïder, Applications of chitosan in the seafood industry and aquaculture: a review. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5 (2012) 817-830.
[84] R. Jayakumaret, D. Menon, K. Manzoor, S. V. Nair and H.Tamura, Biomedical applications of chitin and chitosan based nanomaterials—A short review. Carbohydrate Polymers, 82 (2010) 227-232.
[85] T. Kean and M. Thanou, Chitin and chitosan: sources, production and medical applications. Renewable resources for functional polymers and biomaterials, (2011) 292-318.
[86] Y. Luo and Q. Wang, Recent development of chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes with natural polysaccharides for drug delivery. International journal of biological macromolecules, 64 (2014) 353-367.
[87] S.B. Seo, C.-S. Ryu, G.-W. Ahn, H.-B. Kim, B.-K. Jo, S.-H. Kim, J.-D. Lee and T. Kajiuchi, Development of a natural preservative system using the mixture of chitosan‐Inula helenium L. extract. International journal of cosmetic science, 24 (2002) 195-206.
[88] I. M. Martins, M. F. Barreiro, M. Coelho, A. E. Rodrigues, Microencapsulation of essential oils with biodegradable polymeric carriers for cosmetic applications. Chemical Engineering Journal, 245 (2014) 191-200.
[89] Y.A. Gomaa, L. K. El-Khordagui, N. A. Boraei and I. A. Darwish, Chitosan microparticles incorporating a hydrophilic sunscreen agent. Carbohydrate Polymers, 81 (2010) 234-242.
[90] W.W. Ngah, L. Teong and M. Hanafiah, Adsorption of dyes and heavy metal ions by chitosan composites: A review. Carbohydrate polymers, 83 (2011) 1446-1456.
[91] J. Wang, and C. Chen, Chitosan-based biosorbents: modification and application for biosorption of heavy metals and radionuclides. Bioresource technology, 160 (2014) 129-141.
[92] G.Z. Kyzas, D.N. Bikiaris and A.C. Mitropoulos, Chitosan adsorbents for dye removal: A review. Polymer International, (2017).
[93] G. MR, , Recent Advances in Chitosan Based Biosorbent for Environmental Clean-Up. Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation, 7 (2016) 173.
[94] N.G. Kandile, H.M. Mohamed and M.I. Mohamed, New heterocycle modified chitosan adsorbent for metal ions (II) removal from aqueous systems. International journal of biological macromolecules, 72 (2015) 110-116.
[95] A. Bhatnagar and M. Sillanpää, Applications of chitin-and chitosan-derivatives for the detoxification of water and wastewater—a short review. Advances in colloid and interface science, 152 (2009) 26-38.
[96] V.K. Thakur and M.K. Thakur, Recent advances in graft copolymerization and applications of chitosan: a review. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2 (2014) 2637-2652.
[97] L. Zhang, Y. Zeng and Z. Cheng, Removal of heavy metal ions using chitosan and modified chitosan: A review. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 214 (2016)175-191.
[98] G.Z. Kyzas and E.A. Deliyanni, Mercury (II) removal with modified magnetic chitosan adsorbents. Molecules, 18 (2013) 6193-6214.
[99] J. He and J.P. Chen, A comprehensive review on biosorption of heavy metals by algal biomass: materials, performances, chemistry, and modeling simulation tools. Bioresource technology, 160 (2014) 67-78.
[100] M. Ahmad, S. Ahmed, B. L. Swami and S. Ikram, Adsorption of heavy metal ions: role of chitosan and cellulose for water treatment. Langmuir, 79 (2015) 109-155.
[101] M.T. Yagub, T. K. Sen, S. Afroze and H. M. Ang, Dye and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption: a review. Advances in colloid and interface science, 209 (2014) 172-184.
[102] V. Gupta, Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal–A review. Journal of environmental management, 90 (2009) 2313-2342.
[103] J. Zhang, Q. Zhou and L. Ou, Kinetic, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies of the adsorption of methyl orange from aqueous solution by chitosan/alumina composite. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 57 (2011) 412-419.
[104] G.Z. Kyzas and D.N. Bikiaris, Recent modifications of chitosan for adsorption applications: a critical and systematic review. Marine drugs, 13 (2015) 312-337.
[105] M. Vakili, S. Deng, L. Shen, D. Shan, D. Liu and G. Yu, Regeneration of Chitosan-Based Adsorbents for Eliminating Dyes from Aqueous Solutions. Separation & Purification Reviews, (2017) 1-13.
[106] V. Nair, A. Panigrahy and R. Vinu, Development of novel chitosan–lignin composites for adsorption of dyes and metal ions from wastewater. Chemical Engineering Journal, 254 (2014) 491-502.
[107] J. Yan, Y. Huang, Y. E. Miao, W. W. Tiju and T. Liu, Polydopamine-coated electrospun poly (vinyl alcohol)/poly (acrylic acid) membranes as efficient dye adsorbent with good recyclability. Journal of hazardous materials, 283 (2015) 730-739.
[108] Q. Peng, M. Liu, J. Zheng and C. Zhou, Adsorption of dyes in aqueous solutions by chitosan–halloysite nanotubes composite hydrogel beads. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 201 (2015) 190-201.
[109] G. Dotto, J. M. N. Santos, E. H. Tanabe, D. A. Bertuol, E. L. Foletto, E. C. Lima and F. A. Pavan, Chitosan/polyamide nanofibers prepared by Forcespinning® technology: A new adsorbent to remove anionic dyes from aqueous solutions. Journal of cleaner production, 144 (2017) 120-129.