Residual Stresses Analysis in AISI 316L Processed by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Treated by Mechanical Post-Processing Treatments

Residual Stresses Analysis in AISI 316L Processed by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Treated by Mechanical Post-Processing Treatments

Q. Portella, M. Chemkhi, D. Retraint

download PDF

Abstract. Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a metal additive manufacturing process widely used in industry for its extraordinary versatility and minimal waste of material. Mechanical properties of SLM parts strongly depend on the process parameters such as power, scanning speed, hatch space and scanning strategy. Depending on these latter parameters, the SLM parts can be porous or fully dense. However, the high thermal gradients which are characteristic of this process induce complex distributions of residual stresses and defects such as micro-cracks. In the case where these internal stresses have a negative effect on the physical and mechanical integrity of SLM parts, the well-known solution proposed to reduce them is a post-heat treatment. Incidentally, superficial compressive residual stresses can also be generated by mechanical treatments and can improve the fatigue performance of the treated parts. The aim of this work is to examine the effect of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) on the residual stresses present in AISI 316L parts processed by SLM. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that this mechanical treatment is a promising method to avoid the negative effect of tensile residual stresses resulting from the SLM process and can introduce a beneficial superficial compressive residual stress state. Moreover, work hardening and surface roughness were evaluated in all the untreated and SMATed samples.

Residual Stresses, 316L, Selective Laser Melting, SMAT, Roughness, Micro-Hardness

Published online 9/11/2018, 6 pages
Copyright © 2018 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: Q. Portella, M. Chemkhi, D. Retraint, ‘Residual Stresses Analysis in AISI 316L Processed by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Treated by Mechanical Post-Processing Treatments’, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 6, pp 271-276, 2018


The article was published as article 43 of the book Residual Stresses 2018

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

[1] W. J. Sames, F. A. List, S. Pannala, R. R. Dehoff, and S. S. Babu, “The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing,” Int. Mater. Rev., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 315–360, Jul. 2016.
[2] K. Lu and J. Lu, “Nanostructured surface layer on metallic materials induced by surface mechanical attrition treatment,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 375–377, pp. 38–45, Jul. 2004.
[3] B. Arifvianto, Suyitno, M. Mahardika, P. Dewo, P. T. Iswanto, and U. A. Salim, “Effect of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) on microhardness, surface roughness and wettability of AISI 316L,” Mater. Chem. Phys., vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 418–426, Feb. 2011.
[4] Y. Samih, B. Beausir, B. Bolle, and T. Grosdidier, “In-depth quantitative analysis of the microstructures produced by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT),” Mater. Charact., vol. 83, pp. 129–138, Sep. 2013.
[5] T. Roland, D. Retraint, K. Lu, and J. Lu, “Enhanced mechanical behavior of a nanocrystallised stainless steel and its thermal stability,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 445–446, pp. 281–288, Feb. 2007.
[6] B. Arifvianto, Suyitno, and M. Mahardika, “Effects of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) on a rough surface of AISI 316L stainless steel,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 258, no. 10, pp. 4538–4543, Mar. 2012.
[7] M. Chemkhi, D. Retraint, A. Roos, and C. Demangel, “Role and effect of mechanical polishing on the enhancement of the duplex mechanical attrition/plasma nitriding treatment of AISI 316L steel,” Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 325, pp. 454–461, Sep. 2017.
[8] J. Čapek et al., “Highly porous, low elastic modulus 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by selective laser melting,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 69, pp. 631–639, Dec. 2016.
[9] T. Simson, A. Emmel, A. Dwars, and J. Böhm, “Residual stress measurements on AISI 316L samples manufactured by selective laser melting,” Addit. Manuf., vol. 17, pp. 183–189, Oct. 2017.
[10] T. Roland, D. Retraint, K. Lu, and J. Lu, “Fatigue life improvement through surface nanostructuring of stainless steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment,” Scr. Mater., vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 1949–1954, Jun. 2006.
[11] “ISO 6892-1:2009(en), Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature.”
[12] “ISO 4287:1997 – Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method — Terms, definitions and surface texture parameters.”
[13] E. S. Gadelmawla, M. M. Koura, T. M. A. Maksoud, I. M. Elewa, and H. H. Soliman, “Roughness parameters,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 133–145, Apr. 2002.
[14] J. A. Cherry, H. M. Davies, S. Mehmood, N. P. Lavery, S. G. R. Brown, and J. Sienz, “Investigation into the effect of process parameters on microstructural and physical properties of 316L stainless steel parts by selective laser melting,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 76, no. 5–8, pp. 869–879, Feb. 2015.
[15] E. Yasa and J.-P. Kruth, “Microstructural investigation of Selective Laser Melting 316L stainless steel parts exposed to laser re-melting,” Procedia Eng., vol. 19, pp. 389–395, Jan. 2011.
[16] I. Tolosa, F. Garciandía, F. Zubiri, F. Zapirain, and A. Esnaola, “Study of mechanical properties of AISI 316 stainless steel processed by ‘selective laser melting’, following different manufacturing strategies,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 51, no. 5–8, pp. 639–647, Nov. 2010.
[17] E. Liverani, S. Toschi, L. Ceschini, and A. Fortunato, “Effect of selective laser melting (SLM) process parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of 316L austenitic stainless steel,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., vol. 249, pp. 255–263, Nov. 2017.
[18] Z. Sun, X. Tan, S. B. Tor, and W. Y. Yeong, “Selective laser melting of stainless steel 316L with low porosity and high build rates,” Mater. Des., vol. 104, pp. 197–204, Aug. 2016.
[19] A. A. Deev, P. A. Kuznetcov, and S. N. Petrov, “Anisotropy of Mechanical Properties and its Correlation with the Structure of the Stainless Steel 316L Produced by the SLM Method,” Phys. Procedia, vol. 83, pp. 789–796, Jan. 2016.
[20] D. Gallitelli, D. Retraint, and E. Rouhaud, “Comparison between Conventional Shot Peening (SP) and Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) on a Titanium Alloy,” Adv. Mater. Res., vol. 996, pp. 964–968, Aug. 2014.
[21] T. Roland, D. Retraint, K. Lu, and J. Lu, “Generation of Nanostructures on 316L Stainless Steel and Its Effect on Mechanical Behavior,” Materials Science Forum, 2005.