Thermoplastic pultrusion of recycled PET matrix composites

Thermoplastic pultrusion of recycled PET matrix composites

TUCCI Fausto, RUBINO Felice, ESPERTO Vitantonio, CARLONE Pierpaolo

download PDF

Abstract. Recently, many industry sectors are investigating safe ways to replace conventional materials by adopting thermoplastic matrix composites. Indeed, the adoption of this class of polymeric matrices enables other post-process operations, such as forming and welding. Moreover, the diffusion and the improvement of thermoplastic matrix composites can promote the usage of recycled polymers, which would dramatically improve the environmental sustainability of the production. The aim of this work is the assessment of the thermoplastic pultrusion of preimpregnated tapes made of glass fibers and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) matrix. A thermoplastic pultrusion line consisting of a heating-forming die and a cooling die has been used to manufacture a rectangular cross-section profile having dimensions of 25 mm in width and 4 mm in thickness. The internal temperature has been measured during the process by using a wire thermocouple. The composite produced has been assessed by interlaminar shear strength testing, and its cross-section has been analyzed by optical microscopy to assess the continuity of the matrix, the internal structure, and the distribution of the fibrous reinforcement.

Pultrusion, Thermoplastic, Sustainable Manufacturing

Published online 4/24/2024, 8 pages
Copyright © 2024 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: TUCCI Fausto, RUBINO Felice, ESPERTO Vitantonio, CARLONE Pierpaolo, Thermoplastic pultrusion of recycled PET matrix composites, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 41, pp 422-429, 2024


The article was published as article 47 of the book Material Forming

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

[1] Y. Gong, Z. Song, H. Ning, N. Hu, X. Peng, X. Wu, R. Zou, F. Liu, S. Weng, Q. Liu, A comprehensive review of characterization and simulation methods for thermo-stamping of 2D woven fabric reinforced thermoplastics, Compos. Part B Eng. 203 (2020) 108462.
[2] P. Boisse, R. Akkerman, P. Carlone, L. Kärger, S. V. Lomov, J.A. Sherwood, Advances in composite forming through 25 years of ESAFORM, Int. J. Mater. Form. 15 (2022) 39.
[3] M. Péron, F. Jacquemin, P. Casari, G. Orange, J.L. Bailleul, N. Boyard, Thermomechanical characterization of a low viscosity PA66 thermoplastic matrix and associated continuous glass fibre composite under processing conditions, J. Compos. Mater. 53 (2019) 3169–3186.
[4] M. Liu, L. Wang, X. Peng, Testing, characterizing, and forming of glass twill fabric/polypropylene prepregs, J. Compos. Mater. 53 (2019) 3939–3950.
[5] L. Scelsi, A. Hodzic, C. Soutis, S.A. Hayes, S. Rajendran, M.A. AlMa’adeed, R. Kahraman, A review on composite materials based on recycled thermoplastics and glass fibres, Plast. Rubber Compos. 40 (2011) 1–10.
[6] G.W. de Kort, S. Saidi, D. Hermida-Merino, N. Leone, V. Srinivas, S. Rastogi, C.H.R.M. Wilsens, Importance of viscosity control for recyclable reinforced thermoplastic composites, Macromolecules. 53 (2020) 6690–6702.
[7] T.F. Starr, Pultrusion for engineers, Abington Hall, Abington Cambridge CB1 6AH, England, 2000.
[8] K. Minchenkov, A. Vedernikov, A. Safonov, I. Akhatov, Thermoplastic pultrusion: A review, Polymers (Basel). 13 (2021) 1–36.
[9] P. Zhou, C. Li, Y. Bai, S. Dong, G. Xian, A. Vedernikov, I. Akhatov, A. Safonov, Q. Yue, Durability study on the interlaminar shear behavior of glass-fibre reinforced polypropylene (GFRPP) bars for marine applications, Constr. Build. Mater. 349 (2022) 128694.
[10] K. Minchenkov, A. Vedernikov, Y. Kuzminova, S. Gusev, A. Sulimov, A. Gulyaev, A. Kreslavskaya, I. Prosyanoy, G. Xian, I. Akhatov, A. Safonov, Effects of the quality of pre-consolidated materials on the mechanical properties and morphology of thermoplastic pultruded flat laminates, Compos. Commun. 35 (2022) 101281.
[11] P.J. Novo, J.F. Silva, J.P. Nunes, A.T. Marques, Pultrusion of fibre reinforced thermoplastic pre-impregnated materials, Compos. Part B Eng. 89 (2016) 328–339.
[12] A. Vedernikov, K. Minchenkov, S. Gusev, A. Sulimov, P. Zhou, C. Li, G. Xian, I. Akhatov, A. Safonov, Effects of the Pre-Consolidated Materials Manufacturing Method on the Mechanical Properties of Pultruded Thermoplastic Composites, Polymers (Basel). 14 (2022) 1–15.
[13] F. Tucci, D. Larrea-Wachtendorff, G. Ferrari, P. Carlone, Pulling force analysis in injection pultrusion of glass/epoxy composites, Mater. Manuf. Process. 00 (2022) 1–12.
[14] F. Tucci, F. Rubino, P. Carlone, Strain and temperature measurement in pultrusion processes by fiber Bragg grating sensors, AIP Conf. Proc. 1960 (2018).
[15] F. Tucci, F. Rubino, G. Pasquino, P. Carlone, Thermoplastic Pultrusion Process of Polypropylene/Glass Tapes, Polymers (Basel). 15 (2023).
[16] F. Tucci, F. Rubino, V. Esperto, G. Pasquino, P. Carlone, Investigation on the pultrusion of thermoplastic preimpregnated polypropylene-glass tapes, Mater. Res. Proc. 28 (2023) 393–398.
[17] S. Ranjit, J.A. Roux, A.L. Jeswani, Impact of injection slot width and final composite thickness for attached-die and detached-die tapered resin injection pultrusion, Appl. Compos. Mater. 20 (2013) 431–448.
[18] D.R. Palikhel, J.A. Roux, A.L. Jeswani, Die-attached versus die-detached resin injection chamber for pultrusion, Appl. Compos. Mater. 20 (2013) 55–72.
[19] A.L. Jeswani, J.A. Roux, Manufacturing modeling of three-dimensional resin injection pultrusion process control parameters for polyester/glass rovings composites, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 129 (2007) 143–156.
[20] F. Tucci, R. Bezerra, F. Rubino, P. Carlone, Multiphase flow simulation in injection pultrusion with variable properties, Mater. Manuf. Process. 35 (2020) 152–162.