Influences of Welding Parameters on Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum and Magnesium: A Review
Boopathi Sampath, V. Haribalajidownload PDF
Abstract. Friction stir welding (FSW) is an important joining process wherein two dissimilar metals and alloys are welded together using frictional heat produced in a revolving tool and workpiece. FSW is playing an important role in dissimilar material joining of Magnesium (Mg) and Aluminum (Al) materials due to the increasing demand for their industrial applications. In this review article, the research background of FSW processes, and influences of joining factors on tensile strength, micro-hardness, and microstructures of FSW of Al-Mg alloy materials have been studied. The effects of joining factors for example axial force, tool revolving speed, tool incline, speed, and offset on welding characterizes have been enlightened to make defect-free FSW of aluminum and magnesium alloys. The microstructural behaviors of intermetallic formation and material drift in FSW zones of Al-Mg were also studied to find the scope to improve the welding quality.
Aluminum, Magnesium, Friction Stir Welding, Joining Factor, Welding Quality, Defect-Free
Published online 8/15/2021, 9 pages
Copyright © 2021 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA
Citation: Boopathi Sampath, V. Haribalaji, Influences of Welding Parameters on Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum and Magnesium: A Review, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 19, pp 222-230, 2021
The article was published as article 28 of the book Recent Advancements in Geotechnical Engineering
Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
 R. Allen, T. Thomson, Friction welding, Chinese Patent., (1986).
 R. V Arunprasad, G. Surendhiran, M. Ragul, T. Soundarrajan, S. Moutheepan, S. Boopathi, Review on Friction Stir Welding Process, Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res. ISSN., 13 (2018) 5750–5758.
 M. Azizieh, A. Sadeghi Alavijeh, M. Abbasi, Z. Balak, H.S. Kim, Mechanical properties and microstructural evaluation of AA1100 to AZ31 dissimilar friction stir welds, Materials Chemistry and Physics., 170 (2016) 251–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2015.12.046
 A.H. Baghdadi, Z. Sajuri, M.Z. Omar, A. Rajabi, Friction stir welding parameters: Impact of abnormal grain growth during post-weld heat treatment on mechanical properties of Al–Mg–Si welded joints, Metals., 10 (2020) 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10121607
 A. Bandi, S.R. Bakshi, Effect of Pin Length and Rotation Speed on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Lap Joints of AZ31B-H24 Mg Alloy and AA6061-T6 Al Alloy, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science., 51 (2020) 6269–6282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-020-06020-8
 S. Boopathi, A. Kumaresan, N. Manohar, R. Krishna Moorthi, Review on Effect of Process Parameters-Friction Stir Welding Process, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)., 4 (2017).
 G. Buffa, D. Baffari, A. Di Caro, L. Fratini, Friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminium– magnesium joints: Sheet mutual position effects, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining., 20 (2015) 271–279. https://doi.org/10.1179/1362171815Y.0000000016
 W. Chen, W. Wang, Z. Liu, D. An, N. Shi, T. Zhang, M. Ding, Microstructure evolution mechanism of Al/Mg dissimilar joint during friction stir welding, Metallurgical Research & Technology., 117 (2020) 311. https://doi.org/10.1051/metal/2020012
 W. Chen, W. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Zhai, G. Bian, T. Zhang, P. Dong, Improvement in tensile strength of Mg/Al alloy dissimilar friction stir welding joints by reducing intermetallic compounds, Journal of Alloys and Compounds., (2020) 157942. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2020.157942
 S. Dharmalingam, K. Lenin, P. Navaneetha Krishnan, Comparative analysis of cylindrical thread and straight square profile pin on ultimate tensile strength of AA8011/AZ31B in friction stir butt welding, Materials Today: Proceedings., 21 (2020) 523–526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.06.661
 B. Fu, G. Qin, F. Li, X. Meng, J. Zhang, C. Wu, Friction stir welding process of dissimilar metals of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy to AZ31B magnesium alloy, Journal of Materials Processing Technology., 218 (2015) 38–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.11.039
 H.H. Jadav, V. Badheka, D.K. Sharma, G. Upadhyay, Effect of pin diameter and different cooling media on friction stir welding of dissimilar Al-Mg alloys, Materials Today: Proceedings., (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.09.553
 S.A. Khodir, T. Shibayanagi, Dissimilar friction stir welded joints between 2024-T3 aluminum alloy and AZ31 magnesium alloy, Materials Transactions., 48 (2007) 2501–2505. https://doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.MRA2007093
 K. Kumar, S. V. Kailas, The role of friction stir welding tool on material flow and weld formation, Materials Science and Engineering A., 485 (2008) 367–374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2007.08.013
 S. Kumar, C. Wu, Suppression of intermetallic reaction layer by ultrasonic assistance during friction stir welding of Al and Mg based alloys, Journal of Alloys and Compounds., 827 (2020) 154343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2020.154343
 U. Kumar, U. Acharya, S.C. Saha, B.S. Roy, Microstructure and mechanical property of friction stir welded Al-Mg joints by adopting modified joint configuration technique, Materials Today: Proceedings., 26 (2019) 2083–2088. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.02.450
 Y. Li, H. Yan, J. Chen, W. Xia, B. Su, T. Ding, X. Li, Influences of welding speed on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Al-Mg alloy with high Mg content, Materials Research Express., 7 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ab9854
 H. Liu, Y. Chen, Z. Yao, F. Luo, Effect of tool offset on the microstructure and properties of AA6061/AZ31B friction stir welding joints, Metals., 10 (2020) 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040546
 Z. Liu, X. Meng, S. Ji, Z. Li, L. Wang, Improving tensile properties of Al/Mg joint by smashing intermetallic compounds via ultrasonic-assisted stationary shoulder friction stir welding, Journal of Manufacturing Processes., 31 (2018) 552–559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2017.12.022
 S. MD, A.K. Birru, Mechanical and metallurgical properties of friction stir welded dissimilar joints of AZ91 magnesium alloy and AA 6082-T6 aluminium alloy, Journal of Magnesium and Alloys., 7 (2019) 264–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jma.2018.09.004
 J. Mohammadi, Y. Behnamian, A. Mostafaei, H. Izadi, T. Saeid, A.H. Kokabi, A.P. Gerlich, Friction stir welding joint of dissimilar materials between AZ31B magnesium and 6061 aluminum alloys: Microstructure studies and mechanical characterizations, Materials Characterization., 101 (2015) 189–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2015.01.008
 B.L. Prasad, G. Neelaiah, M.G. Krishna, S.V.V. Ramana, K.S. Prakash, G. Sarika, G.P.K. Reddy, R. Dumpala, B.R. Sunil, Joining of AZ91 Mg alloy and Al6063 alloy sheets by friction stir welding, Journal of Magnesium and Alloys., 6 (2018) 71–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jma.2017.12.004
 O.S. Salih, N. Neate, H. Ou, W. Sun, Influence of process parameters on the microstructural evolution and mechanical characterisations of friction stir welded Al-Mg-Si alloy, Journal of Materials Processing Technology., 275 (2020) 116366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.116366
 Y.S. Sato, S.H.C. Park, M. Michiuchi, H. Kokawa, Constitutional liquation during dissimilar friction stir welding of Al and Mg alloys, Scripta Materialia., 50 (2004) 1233–1236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2004.02.002
 I. Shigematsu, Y.J. Kwon, N. Saito, Dissimilar friction stir welding for tailor-welded blanks of aluminum and magnesium alloys, Materials Transactions., 50 (2009) 197–203. https://doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.MER2008326
 Y.B. Yan, Z.W. Zhang, W. Shen, J.H. Wang, L.K. Zhang, B.A. Chin, Microstructure and properties of magnesium AZ31B-aluminum 7075 explosively welded composite plate, Materials Science and Engineering A., 527 (2010) 2241–2245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2009.12.007
 Y.K. Yang, H. DongG, S. Kou, Liquation Tendency and Liquid-Film, Welding Journal., 87 (2008) 202–211.