Performance Effects of Laser Deposited Ti-Al-Sn Coating on ASTM A29 Steel

Article PDF


Performance Effects of Laser Deposited Ti-Al-Sn Coating on ASTM A29 Steel

O.S. Fatoba, S.A. Akinlabi, E.T. Akinlabi

download PDF

The conventional surface modification and coating cannot always fulfil the performance of material surface under extreme corrosion and wear environments. Corrosion and wear phenomenon lead to the gradual deterioration of components in industrial plants that can result in loss of plant efficiency, and even total shutdown with aggravated damage in industries. Hence, surface modification by incorporating chemical barrier coatings can be beneficial to this extent we report on investigation aimed at enhancing the surface properties of ASTM A29 steel by incorporating Ti-Al-Sn coatings deposited by laser deposition technique. For this purpose, a 3-kW continuous wave ytterbium laser system attached to a KUKA robot which controls the movement during the alloying process was utilized to deposit coatings with stoichiometry Ti-30Al-20Sn and Ti-20Al-20Sn. The alloyed surfaces were investigated in terms of its hardness and wear behaviour as function of the laser processing conditions. Hardness measurements were done using a vickers micro-hardness tester model FM700. Wear tests were performed on prepared ASTM A29 steel substrate deposited sample using the reciprocating tribometer (CERT UMT-2) under dry reciprocating conditions with continual recording of the dynamic coefficient of friction (COF) values. The microstructures of the coated and uncoated samples were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, X-ray diffraction was used to identify the phase’s contents. The optimum performances were obtained for an alloy composition of Ti-20Al-20Sn, at laser power of 750 W and coating speed of 0.8 m/min. Its performance enhancement compared to the unprotected substrate comprised a significant increase in hardness from 115 to 509 HV and reduced wear volume loss from 0.717 to 0.053 mm3. The enhanced performance is attributed to the formation of the intermetallic phases Ti6Sn5, AlSn2Ti5, Ti3Al, and TiAl.

ASTM A29 Steel, Hardness, Wear, Ti-Al-Sn Coating, Intermetallics

Published online 4/20/2018, 6 pages
Copyright © 2018 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: O.S. Fatoba, S.A. Akinlabi, E.T. Akinlabi, ‘Performance Effects of Laser Deposited Ti-Al-Sn Coating on ASTM A29 Steel’, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 4, pp 135-140, 2018


The article was published as article 21 of the book

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

[1] T. Desaki, Y. Goto and S. Kamiya, Development of the Aluminium Alloy Bearing with Higher Wear Resistance, Soc. Autom. Engr. of Japan Rev. 21 (2000) 321-325.
[2] V. Bhattacharya and K. Chattopadhyay, Microstructure and wear behaviour of aluminium alloys containing embedded nanoscaled lead dispersoids. Acta Materialia. 52 (2004) 2293-2304.
[3] X.J. Ning, J.H. Kim, H.J. Kim, C.J. Li and C. Lee, Characteristics and heat treatment of cold-sprayed Al-Sn binary alloy coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202 (2008) 1681.
[4] O.S. Fatoba E.T. Akinlabi and M.E. Makhatha. Effect of Process Parameters on the Microstructure, Hardness, and Wear Resistance Properties of Zn-Sn-Ti Coatings on AISI 1015 Steel: Laser Alloying Technique. International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering. 11 (6) (2017), 489-511.
[5] J. Qu and J.J. Truhan, An efficient method for accurately determining wear volumes of sliders with non-flat wear scars and compound curvatures, Wear, 261 (2006) 848–855.
[6] M. Sujata, S. Bhargava, S. Suwas and S. Sangal. On Kinetics of TiAl3 Formation during Reaction Synthesis from Solid Ti and Liquid Al, Journal of Materials Science Letters, 20 (2001) 2207-2209.
[7] X.F. Liu, Z.Q. Wang, Z.G. Zhang and X.F. Bian. The Relationship between Microstructures and Refining Performances of Al-Ti-C Master Alloys, Materials Science and Engineering:A, 332 (2002) 70-74.
[8] R.O. Kaibyshev, I.A. Mazurina and D.A. Gromov, Mechanisms of Grain Refinement in Aluminum Alloys in the Process of Severe Plastic Deformation, Metal Science and Heat Treatment, 48 (2006) 57-62.
[9] R.L. Fleischer, D.M. Dimiduk and H.A. Lipsitt. Intermetallic Compounds for High Temperature Materials: Status and Potential, Annual Review Materials Science, 19 (1989) 231-263.
[10] E.T. Akinlabi and S.A. Akinlabi, Effect of Heat Input on the Properties of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welds of Aluminium and Copper, Amer. J. Mater. Sci. 2 (2012) 147-152.
[11] X. Gong, J. Lydon, K. Cooper, and K. Chou, Beam Speed Effects on Ti-6Al-4V Microstructures in Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing, J. Mater. Res. 29 (2014b) 1951-1959.
[12] W. Meng, Z. Li, F. Lu, Y. Wu, J. Chen and S. Katayama, Porosity Formation Mechanism and its Prevention in Laser Lap Welding. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 214, (2014) 1658–1664.