Measurements of Surface and Near-surface Residual Stress in 4330 Low Alloy Carbon Steel Weld Clad Components

Article PDF

Measurements of Surface and Near-surface Residual Stress in 4330 Low Alloy Carbon Steel Weld Clad Components

G. Benghalia, S. Rahimi, J. Wood

download PDF

Abstract. Weld cladding of low alloy carbon steel generates compressive residual stress in the clad layer, in turn potentially improving resistance to fatigue failure, depending on the material used for cladding. The current paper summarises the results of investigations on the magnitude and distribution of residual stress in these weld clad components, undertaken using different techniques including X-ray diffraction, and incremental centre hole drilling based on both strain gauge rosettes and electronic speckle pattern interferometry. Results confirm the presence of tensile residual stress when cladding with Inconel 625 beyond the initial clad profile and compressive residual stress when cladding with 17-4 PH steel. The complementary nature of XRD and hole drilling techniques is highlighted with considerations regarding the weld clad profile and stress distribution with depth. Modelling of residual stress induced by weld cladding using a thermal transient analysis is presented. Simplification of the weld cladding process is shown to provide good correlation with experimentally measured residual stress. Complexities in modelling material behaviour and hence accurate prediction of residual stress are discussed. Chemical composition of the weld into the heat-affected zone and substrate is presented for both weld clad materials, highlighting the effects of alloying and diffusion on chemical composition. Given the complexities in obtaining accurate thermo-mechanical material properties required for modelling, and that residual stress profiles are measured to a limited depth into the clad layer, recommendations are made for the continuation of both experimental and simulation studies.

Keywords
Residual Stress, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI), Incremental Centre Hole-drilling, Finite Element Modelling, Weld Cladding

Published online 12/22/2016, 6 pages
Copyright © 2016 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: G. Benghalia, S. Rahimi, J. Wood, ‘Measurements of Surface and Near-surface Residual Stress in 4330 Low Alloy Carbon Steel Weld Clad Components’, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 2, pp 259-264, 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21741/9781945291173-44

The article was published as article 44 of the book Residual Stresses 2016

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

References
[1] P. J. Withers and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, “Residual Stress: Part 2 – Nature and Origins,” Mater. Sci. Technol., vol. 17, no. April, pp. 366–375, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/026708301101510087
[2] F. A. Kandil, J. D. Lord, A. T. Fry, and P. V. Grant, “A Review of Residual Stress Measurement Methods – A Guide to Technique Selection,” Teddington, 2001.
[3] L. Wagner, “Mechanical Surface Treatments on Titanium, Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 263, pp. 210–216, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(98)01168-X
[4] A. F. Liu, Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fracture: An Introduction. Ohio, USA: ASM International, 2005.
[5] S. Rahimi, K. Mehrez, and T. J. Marrow, “Effect of surface machining on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in sensitised type 304 austenitic stainless steel,” Corros. Eng. Sci. Technol., 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1478422X.2015.1122295
[6] S. Rahimi and T. J. Marrow, “Effects of orientation, stress and exposure time on short intergranular stress corrosion crack behaviour in sensitised type 304 austenitic stainless steel,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., vol. 35, pp. 359–373, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2695.2011.01627.x
[7] G. Schnier, J. Wood, and A. Galloway, “An Experimental Validation of Residual Stresses in Weld Clad Pipelines,” in Research and Applications in Structural Engineering, Mechanics & Computation: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics & Computation, 2013, pp. 613–617. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b15963-113
[8] G. Schnier, J. Wood, and A. Galloway, “Investigating the Effects of Process Variables on the Residual Stresses of Weld and Laser Cladding,” Adv. Mater. Res., vol. 996, pp. 481–487, Aug. 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.996.481
[9] G. Benghalia and J. Wood, “Autofrettage of Weld Clad Components,” Procedia Eng., vol. 130, pp. 453–465, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.12.239
[10] G. Benghalia and J. Wood, “Material and residual stress considerations associated with the autofrettage of weld clad components,” Int. J. Press. Vessel. Pip., vol. 139–140, pp. 146–158, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpvp.2016.02.003
[11] P. J. Withers and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, “Residual Stress: Part 1 – Measurement Techniques,” Mater. Sci. Technol., vol. 17, no. April, pp. 355–365, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/026708301101509980
[12] M. E. Fitzpatrick, A. T. Fry, P. Holdway, F. A. Kandil, J. Shackleton, and L. Suominen, “Measurement Good Practice Guide No. 52: Determination of Residual Stresses by X-Ray Diffraction – Issue 2,” Teddington, UK, 2005.
[13] ASTM International, Standard Test Method for Residual Stress Measurement by X-Ray Diffraction for Bearing Steels. West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2012.
[14] R. Jones and J. A. Leendertz, “Elastic constant and strain measurements using a three beam speckle pattern interferometer,” J. Phys. E Specif. Instruments, vol. 7, pp. 653–657, 1974.
[15] P. V. Grant, J. D. Lord, and P. S. Whitehead, “Measurement Good Practice Guide No. 53 – Issue 2: The Measurement of Residual Stresses by the Incremental Hole Drilling Technique,” Teddington, UK, 2006.
[16] M. B. Prime, “Cross-sectional mapping of residual stresses by measuring the surface contour after a cut,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol., vol. 123, pp. 162–168, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.1345526
[17] R. H. Leggatt, D. J. Smith, S. D. Smith, and F. Faure, “Development and experimental validation of the deep hole method for residual stress measurement,” J. Strain Anal., vol. 31, no. 3, 1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1243/03093247V313177
[18] L.-E. Lindgren, Computational Welding Mechanics: Thermomechanical and Microstructural Simulations. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2007.