Point defects in group IV semiconductors, eBook PDF


S. Pizzini

This book focuses on the properties of defects in group IV semiconductors and, using a physico-chemical approach, aims to clarify whether full knowledge of their chemical nature can account for several problems encountered in practice. Also discussed is the need for further experimental and theoretical research.

Point defects in group IV semiconductors
– common structural and physico-chemical aspects –
S. Pizzini
Materials Research Foundations Volume 10
Publication Date 2017, 134 Pages
Print ISBN 978-1-945291-22-7 (release date April 2017)
ePDF ISBN 978-1-945291-23-4
DOI: 10.21741/9781945291234

A self-consistent model of point defects requires a reliable connection with the experimentally deduced structural, spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of the defect centres, to allow their unambiguous identification.
This book focuses on the properties of defects in group IV semiconductors and seeks to clarify whether full knowledge of their chemical nature can account for several problems encountered in practice.
It is shown how difficult the fulfilment of self-consistency conditions can be, even today, after more than four decades of dedicated research work, especially in the case of compound semiconductors, such as SiC, but also in the apparently simple cases of silicon and germanium. The reason for this is that the available microscopic models do not yet account for defect interactions in real solids.

Point Defects in Silicon, Point Defects in Germanium, Point Defects in Diamond, Point Defects in Silicon Carbides, Point Defect-Impurity Complexes, Defect Modeling, Self-Diffusion, Impurity Diffusion

Table of Contents
1. Introduction 1
1.1. Physical properties of group IV semiconductors 4
1.2 Chemistry and thermodynamics of group IV elements 9
1.3 Chemistry and thermodynamics of group IV carbides 13
2. Defects in group IV semiconductors 20
2.1 Introduction 20
2.2 Physico-chemical properties of point defects in the diamond lattice: experimental results and theoretical modelling 22
2.2.1 Theoretical and experimental evidences 22
2.2.2 Structure of point defects 25
2.2.3 Generation of equilibrium point defects,
thermodynamics and kinetics 30
2.3 Experimental determination of defect properties and
comparison with theoretical calculations: preliminary issues 39
2.3.1 Defect characterization 39
2.3.2 Defect properties as results of theoretical calculations 44
2.4 Interaction of impurities with native point defects 46
2.4.1 Vacancy-impurity complexes formation in silicon,
germanium and silicon-germanium alloys 49
2.4.2. Vacancy-carbon complexes in silicon 58
2.4.3 Vacancy-impurity complexes in diamond:
The Nitrogen-Vacancy centre 58
2.4.4 Vacancy-impurity complexes in diamond: other
impurity-vacancy centres 61
2.4.5 Vacancy-impurity complexes: a new notation 64
3. Self-diffusion experiments and their theoretical modelling as practical tools to deduce nature and presence of native defects in group IV semiconductors 65
3.1 Experimental approach and outcomes 65
3.2 Theoretical modelling and outcomes 73
3.3 Foreign metal diffusion as an additional method to
deduce the nature and properties of defects 75
4. Defects in group IV carbides 84
4.1. Structure and defects of carbides: generalities 84
4.2 Theoretical and experimental evidences 88
4.3 Selfdiffusion 94
Conclusions 98
Acknowledgments 98
References 98
Keyword index 119
About the Author 125

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About the Authors

Dr. Sergio Pizzini is a former full professor of physical chemistry at the Department of Materials Science, University of Milano-Bicocca. He started his scientific carrier at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission in Ispra (Italy) and later in Petten (Nederland), where he was committed of thermodynamic and electrochemical studies on molten fluorides and ionic oxides, in cooperation with the Oak Ridge nuclear center in USA. A notable by-product of the electrochemical  studies was the development of a reversible hydrogen electrode in molten KHF2.

After leaving the Commission, he joined the University of Milano, where he started basic and applied studies on solid oxide electrolytes, addressed at the development of solid state sensors, with some patent applications. Still maintaining his position at the University, he worked for four years as Director of the Materials Department of the Corporate Research Centre of Montedison in Novara, where he supervised new R&D activities on advanced materials for electronics, including InP and silicon. In the next few years, as the CEO of Heliosil, a Research Company sponsored by italian metallurgical silicon producers and, later, by ENI, the major Italian Oil Company, he  developed  and patented a  new process for the production of solar grade silicon  and a new process for the directional solidification of silicon, starting also  systematic studies on extended defects in silicon.

In 1982 he left any outside duty for serving the University of Milano, and later, the University of Milano-Bicocca, as full Professor of Physical Chemistry.  There, his main research interests have been in the areas of structural, electronic and optical properties of point defects, extended defects and impurities in single crystal and multicrystalline  silicon, with major emphasis on  grain boundaries, dislocations and oxygen and carbon impurities, in the frame of national and European Projects, as local or European coordinator and of joint R&D activities with major italian   Companies operating in the sector.

After retirement, he continued the cooperation with the University of Milano-Bicocca on a voluntary basis.He was Chairman or Co-Chairman of a number  of International Symposia in the Materials Science field in Europe, USA and China, including the  last EMRS 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 Symposia on Advanced Silicon and Silicon-Germanium Materials.

He is author of more than 250 technical papers published in peer reviewed international Journals, and authored or co-authored five books, two under Wiley &Sons and  two under CRC Press.