Innovations in Army Energy and Power Materials Technologies


This compendium reports fundamental science and engineering advances of the US Army Research Labratory (ARL) within the area of Energy and Power technologies.


Innovations in Army Energy and Power Materials Technologies
Eds. Edward C. Shaffer, Tsvetanka S. Zheleva
Materials Research Foundations Volume 36
Publication Date 2018, 728 Pages
Print ISBN  9781945291784 (release date September 20th, 2018)
ePDF ISBN 9781945291791
DOI: 10.21741/9781945291791

This compendium reports fundamental science and engineering advances of the US Army Research Labratory (ARL) within the area of Energy and Power technologies. Although, in general, ARL’s Materials Research encompasses a broad range of materials technologies (e.g.: Photonics, Electronics, Biological and Bio-inspired Materials, Structural Materials, High Strain and Ballistic Materials, and Manufacturing Science), this publication specifically addresses selected energy and power material related work at ARL. While this work includes electrochemical energy storage (batteries and capacitors) and electrochemical energy conversion (fuel cells, photoelectrochemistry, and photochemistry), special emphasis is given on electrochemical energy storage:
• Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS): Power density, efficiency, and robustness of motors, generators, and actuators while also reducing their life cycle costs.
• Energy Storage: Electrical and electrochemical energy storage devices to decrease device size, weight, and cost as well as increase their capabilities in extreme temperatures and operating conditions.
• Power Control and Distribution: Tactical, deployable power systems using conventional fuels, alternative fuels, and energy harvested from renewable/ambient sources.
• Power Generation/Energy Conversion: Smart energy networks for platforms, forward operating bases, and facilities using modeling and simulation tools as well as new, greater capability and efficiency components.
• Thermal Transport and Control: Heat and higher power density systems, advanced components, system modeling, and adaptive or hybrid-cycle technologies.

Electrochemical Energy Storage, Batteries, Capacitors, Electrochemical Energy Conversion, Fuel Cells, Photoelectrochemistry, Photochemistry, High Voltage Electrolytes, Li-ion Batteries, Li-ion Chemistry, Lithium–Sulphur Batteries, Nuclear Metastables, Pyroelectric Energy Conversion, Charged Quantum Dots, High-Efficiency Photovoltaics, IR Sensing, GaN Power Schottky Diodes, Threshold-Voltage Instability, Reliability Testing, SiC MOSFETs, Power Electronics Packaging, High Voltage 4H-SiC GTOs, Silicon Carbide, Avalanche Breakdown Diode, SiC PiN Diodes, Thyristor Protection, Compact DC-DC Battery Chargers

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Table of Contents

Preface by Edward C. Shaffer
Section I: Electrochemistry

Recent Trends in Double Layer Capacitors and Dual Intercalation Batteries from Molecular Prospective
Jenel Vatamanu, Oleg Borodin, Marco Olguin, Gleb Yushin, Dmitry Bedrov

Importance of Reduction and Oxidation Stability of High Voltage Electrolytes and Additives
Samuel A. Delp, Oleg Borodin, Marco Olguin, Claire G. Eisner, Joshua L. Allen, T. Richard Jow

Factors Limiting Li+ Charge Transfer Kinetics in Li-ion Batteries
T. Richard Jow, Samuel A. Delp, Jan L. Allen, John-Paul Jones, Marshall C. Smart

In-situ and Quantitative Characterization of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase
Arthur v. Cresce, Selena M. Russell, David R. Baker, Karen J. Gaskell, Kang Xu

LiCoPO4 5 V Li-ion Cathode
Jan L. Allen, Joshua L. Allen, Samuel A. Delp III, Jeff Wolfenstine, T. Richard Jow

“Water-in-Salt” Electrolyte Enables High Voltage Aqueous Li-ion Chemistries
Liumin Suo, Oleg Borodin, Tao Gao, Marco Olguin, Janet Ho, Xiulin Fan, Chao Luo, Chunsheng Wang, Kang Xu

Pyrite FeS2 as an Efficient Adsorbent of Lithium Polysulfide for Improved Lithium–Sulphur Batteries
Sheng S. Zhang, Dat T. Tran

Electrochemical Stability of Li6.5La3Zr2M0.5O12 (M = Nb or Ta) Against Metallic Lithium
Yunsung Kim, Aeri Yoo, Robert Schmidt, Asma Sharafi, Heechul Lee, Jeff Wolfenstine, Jeff Sakamoto

In-Situ Studies on the Electrochemical Intercalation of Hexafluorophosphate Anion in Graphite with Selective Co-intercalation of Solvent
Jeffrey A. Read

Understanding Transport at the Acid-Alkaline Interface of Bipolar Membranes
Kyle N. Grew, Joshua P. McClure, Deryn Chu, Paul A. Kohl, John M. Ahlfield

Stabilizing High-Voltage LiCoO2 Cathode in Aqueous Electrolyte with Interphase-forming Additive
Fei Wang, Yuxiao Lin, Liumin Suo, Xiulin Fan, Tao Gao, Chongyin Yang, Fudong Han, Wei Sun, Yue Qi, Kang Xu, Chunsheng Wang

Section II: The Power Sciences

Nuclear Metastables for Energy and Power: Status and Challenges
James J. Carroll

Microcombustion of Heavy Fuels for Multifuel Portable Power Generation
C.M. Waits, S. Karnani

Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons and Army Jet Fuels for Small Scale Combustion
Ivan C. Lee

Pyroelectric Energy Conversion for Army Applications
Yomery Espinal, Cameron Nevile, Felisa Sze, Andrew N. Smith, Nikolay Ter-Gabrielyn, Nicholas R. Jankowski, C Mike Waits, Brendan M. Hanrahan

Novel Measurement Methods for Thermoelectric Power Generator Materials and Devices
Patrick J. Taylor, Adam Wilson, Jay R. Maddux, Theodorian Borca-Tascuic, Samuel P. Moran, Eduardo Castillo, Diana Borca-Tascuic

Charged Quantum Dots for High-Efficiency Photovoltaics and IR Sensing
A. Sergeev, V. Mitin, N. Vagidov, K. Sablon

IVT Measurements of GaN Power Schottky Diodes with Drift Layers Grown by HVPE on HVPE GaN Substrates
R.P. Tompkins, M.R. Khan, R. Green, K.A. Jones, J.H. Leach

MEMS-Based and Switched-Capacitor Approaches for Miniature Power Supply Applications
Sarah S. Bedair, Christopher D. Meyer, Nathan Lazarus, Christopher Dougherty, Jeffrey S. Pulskamp, Brian Morgan, Ronald Polcawich, Xue Lin, Rizwan Bashirullah, Iain Kierzewski, Joel Martin, Brian Power

Power Management for Small Scale Systems
Christopher D. Meyer, Sarah S. Bedair, Brian C. Morgan, Xue Lin, Rizwan Bashirullah, David P. Arnold, Iain M. Kierzewski, and Nathan S. Lazarus

Power Considerations for MAST Platforms
Brian Morgan, Sarah Bedair, Jeffrey S. Pulskamp, Ronald G. Polcawich, Christopher Meyer, Christopher Dougherty, Xue Lin, David Arnold, Rizwan Bashirullah, Ryan Miller, Mark Roosz

Section III: Power Integration

Basic Mechanisms of Threshold-Voltage Instability and Implications for Reliability Testing of SiC MOSFETs
Aivars J. Lelis, Ron Green, Daniel B. Habersat, Mooro El

Integrated Thermal Management for Power Electronics Packaging
Lauren M. Boteler, Darin J. Sharar, Nicholas R. Jankowski

Multi-Channel, Constant-Current Power Source for Aircraft Applications
C. Wesley Tipton IV, Damian Urciuoli, Donald H. Porschet, Erik Schroen

Simulation Study of Switching-Dependent Device Parameters of High Voltage 4H-SiC GTOs
Aderinto Ogunniyi, James Schrock, Miguel Hinojosa, Heather O’Brien, Aivars Lelis, Stephen Bayne, Sei-Hyung Ryu

A Compact 100-A, 850-V, Silicon Carbide Solid-State DC Circuit Breaker
D. P. Urciuoli, D. Ibitayo, G. Koebke, G. Ovrebo, R. Green

Performance of a 1-kV, Silicon Carbide Avalanche Breakdown Diode
D. Urciuoli, S. Ryu, D. C. Capell, D. Ibitayo, G. Koebke, and C.W. Tipton

Large Chip Area SiC PiN Diodes Demonstrated for Thyristor Protection in a Pulsed System
Heather K. O’Brien, William Shaheen, Aderinto Ogunniyi, Charles Scozzie, Lin Cheng, Miguel Hinojosa, Kevin Lawson, Shelby Lacouture, Stephen Bayne

Study of the Turn-on of Various High-Voltage SiC Thyristors
Heather K. O’Brien, Aderinto Ogunniyi, William Shaheen, Sei-Hyung Ryu

Evaluation of High-Voltage, High-Power 4H-SiC Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors
Miguel Hinojosa, Aderinto Ogunniyi, Heather O’Brien, Stephen B. Bayne, Charles Scozzie

Electro-Thermal TCAD Model for 22 kV Silicon Carbide IGBTs
Miguel Hinojosa, Aderinto Ogunniyi, Stephen Bayne, Edward Van Brunt, Sei-Hyung Ryu

Development of a Compact 2-kW, 28- to 600-V DC-DC Battery Charger
Robert A. Wood, Damian P. Urciuoli

Keyword Index
About the Editors

About the Editors

Dr. Edward C. Shaffer received the B.S. degree from the US Military Academy; the M.S. and E.E. degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and the Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Auburn University. He served in a variety of technical and leadership positions as a US Army officer, including tours in Germany, Korea and the United Kingdom, and as an Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science at the US Military Academy. Dr. Shaffer was also a Senior Design Engineer with Solectria Corporation in Woburn, MA. As Chief of the Energy & Power Division at ARL, he supervises scientists and engineers developing materials, devices and components for high energy batteries, compact power sources, alternative energy solutions, power electronics, energy networks, and related technologies.  He has also served in a number of senior leadership details within ARL, including Acting Deputy Director and Director of the Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate; Acting Chief of the Electronics & RF Division, and Acting Director of the Vehicle Technology Directorate.  Dr. Shaffer is the senior Army representative for the DoD Energy & Power Community of Interest; he is also Past Chair of the both the Steering Committee and Electrical Systems Working Group for the Interagency Advanced Power Group (IAPG). His military awards include the Legion of Merit; he is a Senior Member of IEEE and is a licensed Professional Engineer.

Dr. Tsvetanka S. Zheleva received her B.S. and M.S degree in Physics from Sofia University, Bulgaria and her Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from North Carolina State University. She joined ARL with The National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences and The American Association for Engineering Education fellowships. Also, during her fellowship at ARL she was Adjunct Associate Professor at North Carolina State University. Dr. Zheleva’s expertise is in the field of condensed matter physics and in particular thin film physics, including electronic materials characterization and synthesis for electronic and optoelectronic devices. This includes: structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction of new materials and interfaces, thin films, and bulk materials; dislocation mechanisms, modeling of epitaxial growth, design of new modes of epitaxy; image processing and simulation, atomistic modeling; other characterization techniques. As Associate Chief of the Energy & Power Division at ARL, she oversees numerous Science and Technology programs in Power and Energy relevant technologies. Dr. Zheleva has published her work in over 150 peer review journals and has 28 US and foreign patentsin the area of wide bandgap semiconductor device structures. Dr. Zheleva has numerous awards from US professional societies and the Department of the Army Commanding General Commander’s Award for Civilian Service.