The Behavior of Heat Treated Dendrocalamus Giganteus Bamboo Subjected to Water and Humidity


The Behavior of Heat Treated Dendrocalamus Giganteus Bamboo Subjected to Water and Humidity

A. Azadeh, K. Ghavami

Abstract. The objective of present study is investigation about the effect of heat treatment in different temperatures and time exposures on hygroscopic property of Dendrocalamus giganteus bamboo. The required time to stabilizing of samples from dry condition to 75% RH Relative Humidity) with different geometrical shapes and treated in 3 different temperatures studied at the first experiment. Next, the shrinkage and water absorption of bamboo segments in three Longitudinal, radial and tangential directions, due to heat treatment in 7 different temperatures from ambient temperature to 225°C during 3hrs and 24hrs is investigated. The water absorption test result shows that by increasing the heat treatment temperature and time exposure the hygroscopic property of bamboo is reduced. The heat treatment at higher temperatures can slow down the rate of the short term water absorption.

Bamboo, Heat Treatment, Humidity, Water Absorption, Dendrocalamus giganteus

Published online , 13 pages
Copyright © 2018 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: A. Azadeh, K. Ghavami, ‘The Behavior of Heat Treated Dendrocalamus Giganteus Bamboo Subjected to Water and Humidity’, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 7, pp 569-581, 2018


The article was published as article 55 of the book Non-Conventional Materials and Technologies

[1] K. Ghavami, “Introduction to nonconventional materials and an historic retrospective of the field,” in Nonconventional and Vernacular Construction Materials: Characterisation, Properties and Applications, Woodhead Publishing, 2016, pp. 37–61.
[2] C. Eng, J. E. Waning, and Y. T. Mekonnen, “An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Moisture Content on the Mechanical Properties of Bamboo and Cane.”
[3] ISO 13061-3, “Physical and mechanical properties of wood — Test methods for small clear wood specimens.” 2014.
[4] S. Metsä-Kortelainen, T. Antikainen, and P. Viitaniemi, “The water absorption of sapwood and heartwood of Scots pine and Norway spruce heat-treated at 170 C, 190 C, 210 C and 230 C,” Eur. J. Wood Wood Prod., vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 192–197, 2006.
[5] J. Chrastil, “Quantitation of water absorption, swelling, and drying of biological materials. Soaking of rice and soaking and drying of wood,” J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 965–968, 1989.
[6] S. Malasri, A. Pourhashemi, P. Aung, M. Harvey, and R. Moats, “Water Absorption of Wooden Pallets,” Int. J. Appl., vol. 2, no. 9, 2012.
[7] C. C. Gerhards, “Effect of moisture content and temperature on the mechanical properties of wood: an analysis of immediate effects,” Wood Fiber Sci., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 4–36, 2007.
[8] O. Unsal, S. Korkut, and C. Atik, “The effect of heat treatment on some properties and colour in eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.) wood,” Maderas. Cienc. y Tecnol., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 145–152, 2003.
[9] D. S. Korkut and S. Hiziroglu, “Experimental test of heat treatment effect on physical properties of red oak (Quercus falcate Michx.) and southern pine (Pinus taeda L.),” Materials (Basel)., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 7314–7323, 2014.
[10] W. Scheiding, M. Direske, and M. Zauer, “Water absorption of untreated and thermally modified sapwood and heartwood of Pinus sylvestris,” Eur. J. Wood Wood Prod., vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 585–589, 2016.
[11] Y. M. Zhang, Y. L. Yu, and W. J. Yu, “Effect of thermal treatment on the physical and mechanical properties of phyllostachys pubescen bamboo,” Eur. J. Wood Wood Prod., vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2012.
[12] W. Shangguan, Y. Gong, R. Zhao, and H. Ren, “Effects of heat treatment on the properties of bamboo scrimber,” J. Wood Sci., vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 383–391, 2016.
[13] K. Ghavami, “Bamboo as reinforcement in structural concrete elements,” Cem. Concr. Compos., 2005.
[14] A. Azadeh and H. H. Kazemi, “New Approaches to Bond between Bamboo and Concrete,” Key Eng. Mater., vol. 600, pp. 69–77, 2014.
[15] S. Amada, T. Munekata, Y. Nagase, Y. Ichikawa, A. Kirigai, and Y. Zhifei, “The Mechanical Structures of Bamboos in Viewpoint of Functionally Gradient and Composite Materials,” J. Compos. Mater., vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 800–819, May 1996.
[16] T. Tan, N. Rahbar, S. M. Allameh, S. Kwofie, D. Dissmore, K. Ghavami, and W. O. Soboyejo, “Mechanical properties of functionally graded hierarchical bamboo structures,” Acta Biomater., vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 3796–3803, 2011.
[17] K. Ghavami, C. de S. Rodrigues, and S. Paciornik, “Bamboo: functionally graded composite material,” Asian J. Civ. Eng, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2003.
[18] W. Liese, “The anatomy of bamboo culms. International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR),” 1998.
[19] R. M. Rowell and R. L. Youngs, “Dimensional Stabilization of Wood in Use.,” DTIC Document, 1981.
[20] A. C. ICBO, “162: Acceptance criteria for structural bamboo,” ICBO Eval. Serv. Ltd., California, USA, 2000.
[21] H. P. S. Abdul Khalil, I. U. H. Bhat, M. Jawaid, A. Zaidon, D. Hermawan, and Y. S. Hadi, “Bamboo fibre reinforced biocomposites: A review,” Mater. Des., vol. 42, pp. 353–368, Dec. 2012.
[22] W. Jin, K. Singh, and J. Zondlo, “Pyrolysis Kinetics of Physical Components of Wood and Wood-Polymers Using Isoconversion Method,” Agriculture, 2013. .
[23] L. Gašparovič, Z. Koreňová, and Ľ. Jelemenský, “Kinetic study of wood chips decomposition by TGA,” Chem. Pap., vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 174–181, Jan. 2010.
[24] Z. Jiang, Z. Liu, B. Fei, Z. Cai, and Y. Yu, “The pyrolysis characteristics of moso bamboo,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol. 94, pp. 48–52, 2012.
[25] W.-H. Chen, J. Peng, and X. T. Bi, “A state-of-the-art review of biomass torrefaction, densification and applications,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 44, pp. 847–866, 2015.
[26] B. M. Esteves and H. M. Pereira, “Wood modification by heat treatment: A review,” BioResources, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 370–404, 2009.
[27] D. E. Goldberg, Fundamentals of chemistry. McGraw-Hill, 2006.
[28] M. J. Wheeler, S. Russi, M. G. Bowler, and M. W. Bowler, “Measurement of the equilibrium relative humidity for common precipitant concentrations: facilitating controlled dehydration experiments,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun., vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 111–114, 2012.
[29] J. Khazaei, “Water absorption characteristics of three wood varieties,” Cercet. Agron. în Mold., 2008.
[30] M. PELEG, “An empirical model for the description of moisture sorption curves,” J. Food Sci., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1216–1217, 1988.
[31] N. Abu-Ghannam and B. McKenna, “The application of Peleg’s equation to model water absorption during the soaking of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.),” J. Food Eng., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 391–401, 1997.
[32] N. N. Mohsenin, “Physical properties of plant and animial materials. Vol. 1. Structure, physical characterisitics and mechanical properties.,” Phys. Prop. plant animial Mater. Vol. 1. Struct. Phys. characterisitics Mech. Prop., vol. 1, 1970.