Electrochemical technologies for produced water treatment


Electrochemical technologies for produced water treatment

Dina T. Moussa, Muftah H. El-Naas

Produced water is the byproduct generated by the oil and gas industries, and it is becoming a global concern, due to its complex composition and extreme salinity. On the other hand, such large volumes of water can be treated and utilized to replenish the freshwater supply that is becoming increasingly scarce, making the potential reuse of treated produced water an attractive opportunity. This chapter provides a detailed characterization of produced water from different sources as well as a comprehensive overview of the well-established and emerging electrochemical technologies of produced water treatment. The electrochemical technologies covered in this chapter include anodic oxidation, electrodialysis, and electrodialysis reversal, electro-deionization, capacitive- deionization, electro-coagulation, and electrodeposition, Finally, opportunities of reusing treated produced water are discussed.

Produced Water, Electrochemical Technologies, Wastewater Treatment, Electrocoagulation

Published online 8/1/2017, 25 pages

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21741/9781945291357-13

Part of Inorganic Pollutants in Wastewater

[1] Y. Deng, J.D. Englehardt, Electrochemical oxidation for landfill leachate treatment, Waste Management 27 (2007) 380-388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2006.02.004
[2] C.C.d. Almeida, P.R.F.d. Costa, M.J.d.M. Melo, E.V.d. Santos, C.A. Martínez-Huitle, Application of Electrochemical Technology for Water Treatment of Brazilian Industry Effluents, Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society 58 (2014) 276-286.
[3] R.T. Duraisamy, A.H. Beni, A. Henni, State of the Art Treatment of Produced Water, INTECH Open Access Publisher 9 (2013) 199-222.
[4] E.T. Igunnu, G.Z. Chen, Produced water treatment technologies, International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies (2012) cts049.
[5] M. Nasiri, I. Jafari, Produced Water from Oil-Gas Plants: A Short Review on Challenges and Opportunities, Periodica Polytechnica Chemical Engineering (2016). https://doi.org/10.3311/PPch.8786
[6] J.A. Ahan, characterization of produced water from two offshore oil fields in Qatar, Qatar University, 2014.
[7] J. Veil, M. Puder, D. Elcock, R. Redweik Jr, A white paper describing produced water from production of crude oil, natural gas and coal bed methane. Argonne National Laboratory, Contract W-31-109-Eng-38 (2004).
[8] J.D. Arthur, B.G. Langhus, C. Patel, Technical summary of oil & gas produced water treatment technologies, All Consulting, LLC, Tulsa, OK (2005).
[9] P. Jain, M. Sharma, P. Dureja, P.M. Sarma, B. Lal, Bioelectrochemical approaches for removal of sulfate, hydrocarbon and salinity from produced water, Chemosphere 166 (2017) 96-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.09.081
[10] J. Neff, K. Lee, E.M. DeBlois, Produced water: overview of composition, fates, and effects, Produced water, Springer2011, pp. 3-54. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-0046-2_1
[11] A. Fakhru’l-Razi, A. Pendashteh, L.C. Abdullah, D.R.A. Biak, S.S. Madaeni, Z.Z. Abidin, Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment, Journal of hazardous materials 170 (2009) 530-551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.05.044
[12] E.T. Igunnu, G.Z. Chen, Produced water treatment technologies, International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies 9 (2012) 157-177. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijlct/cts049
[13] J.A. Veil, M.G. Puder, D. Elcock, R.J. Redweik Jr, A white paper describing produced water from production of crude oil, natural gas, and coal bed methane, Argonne National Laboratory, Technical Report (2004).
[14] J. Veil, Why are produced water discharge standards different throughout the world, Environmental Science Division Argonne National Laboratory. 13th IPEC, San Antonio, Texas, October 19th. ipec. utulsa. edu/Conf2006/Papers/Veil prodwater. pdf (2006).
[15] N. Gaurina-Međimurec, K. Simon, B. Pašić, Offshore Drilling and Environmental Protection, Energy and Environment (Energija i okoliš) 2006, 2006.
[16] R. Bernier, E. Garland, A. Glickman, F. Jones, H. Mairs, R. Melton, J. Ray, J. Smith, D. Thomas, J. Campbell, Environmental aspects of the use and disposal of non aqueous drilling fluids associated with offshore oil & gas operations, International Association of Oil & Gas Producers Report 342 (2003).
[17] H. Backer, J.-M. Leppänen, A.C. Brusendorff, K. Forsius, M. Stankiewicz, J. Mehtonen, M. Pyhälä, M. Laamanen, H. Paulomäki, N. Vlasov, HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan–A regional programme of measures for the marine environment based on the Ecosystem Approach, Marine pollution bulletin 60 (2010) 642-649. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.11.016
[18] D.T. Moussa, M.H. El-Naas, M. Nasser, M.J. Al-Marri, A comprehensive review of electrocoagulation for water treatment: Potentials and challenges, Journal of Environmental Management 186 (2017) 24-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.10.032
[19] U.N.E.a.S.C.f.W. Asia, Waste-water Treatment Technologies: A General Review, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia2003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.08.037
[20] F.C. Moreira, R.A.R. Boaventura, E. Brillas, V.J.P. Vilar, Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: A review on their application to synthetic and real wastewaters, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 202 (2017) 217-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.12.011
[21] J.H.B. Rocha, M.M.S. Gomes, N.S. Fernandes, D.R. da Silva, C.A. Martínez-Huitle, Application of electrochemical oxidation as alternative treatment of produced water generated by Brazilian petrochemical industry, Fuel Processing Technology 96 (2012) 80-87.
[22] E.V. dos Santos, S.F.M. Sena, D.R. da Silva, S. Ferro, A. De Battisti, C.A. Martínez-Huitle, Scale-up of electrochemical oxidation system for treatment of produced water generated by Brazilian petrochemical industry, Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21 (2014) 8466-8475. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2779-x
[23] A.J.C. da Silva, E.V. dos Santos, C.C. de Oliveira Morais, C.A. Martínez-Huitle, S.S.L. Castro, Electrochemical treatment of fresh, brine and saline produced water generated by petrochemical industry using Ti/IrO2–Ta2O5 and BDD in flow reactor, Chemical Engineering Journal 233 (2013) 47-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.08.023
[24] E.V. dos Santos, J.H. Bezerra Rocha, D.M. de Araújo, D.C. de Moura, C.A. Martínez-Huitle, Decontamination of produced water containing petroleum hydrocarbons by electrochemical methods: a minireview, Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21 (2014) 8432-8441. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2780-4
[25] B. Gargouri, O.D. Gargouri, B. Gargouri, S.K. Trabelsi, R. Abdelhedi, M. Bouaziz, Application of electrochemical technology for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water using lead dioxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes, Chemosphere 117 (2014) 309-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.07.067
[26] S.B. Dimitrijević, S.P. Dimitrijević, M.D. Vuković, Modern water treatment by electrochemical oxidation-a review.
[27] I.D. Santos, M. Dezotti, A.J.B. Dutra, Electrochemical treatment of effluents from petroleum industry using a Ti/RuO2 anode, Chemical Engineering Journal 226 (2013) 293-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.04.080
[28] J. Radjenovic, D.L. Sedlak, Challenges and Opportunities for Electrochemical Processes as Next-Generation Technologies for the Treatment of Contaminated Water, Environmental Science & Technology 49 (2015) 11292-11302. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b02414
[29] O. Scialdone, Electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants in water at metal oxide electrodes: A simple theoretical model including direct and indirect oxidation processes at the anodic surface, Electrochimica Acta 54 (2009) 6140-6147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2009.05.066
[30] M.R.G. Santos, M.O.F. Goulart, J. Tonholo, C.L.P.S. Zanta, The application of electrochemical technology to the remediation of oily wastewater, Chemosphere 64 (2006) 393-399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.12.036
[31] C.A. Martínez-Huitle, M.A. Rodrigo, I. Sirés, O. Scialdone, Single and coupled electrochemical processes and reactors for the abatement of organic water pollutants: a critical review, Chemical reviews 115 (2015) 13362-13407. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00361
[32] S.A. Babu, S. Raja, S. Sibi, T. Sundaram, Direct And Indirect Electrochemical Oxidation Of Organic Pollutants From Industrially Polluted Water, I Control Pollution 2012 (2015).
[33] C.A. Martinez-Huitle, S. Ferro, Electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants for the wastewater treatment: direct and indirect processes, Chemical Society Reviews 35 (2006) 1324-1340. https://doi.org/10.1039/B517632H
[34] C.L. De Silva, R.K. Garlapalli, J.P. Trembly, Removal of phenol from oil/gas produced water using supercritical water treatment with TiO2 supported MnO2 ctalyst, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 5 (2017) 488-493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2016.12.015
[35] J.H. Luong, K.B. Male, J.D. Glennon, Boron-doped diamond electrode: synthesis, characterization, functionalization and analytical applications, Analyst 134 (2009) 1965-1979.
[36] J. Iniesta, P.A. Michaud, M. Panizza, G. Cerisola, A. Aldaz, C. Comninellis, Electrochemical oxidation of phenol at boron-doped diamond electrode, Electrochimica Acta 46 (2001) 3573-3578. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4686(01)00630-2
[37] M.Y.A. Mollah, P. Morkovsky, J.A.G. Gomes, M. Kesmez, J. Parga, D.L. Cocke, Fundamentals, present and future perspectives of electrocoagulation, Journal of Hazardous Materials 114 (2004) 199-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2004.08.009
[38] M.Y.A. Mollah, R. Schennach, J.R. Parga, D.L. Cocke, Electrocoagulation (EC) — science and applications, Journal of Hazardous Materials 84 (2001) 29-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(01)00176-5
[39] P.K. Holt, G.W. Barton, C.A. Mitchell, The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology, Chemosphere 59 (2005) 355-367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.10.023
[40] P.K. Holt, G.W. Barton, M. Wark, C.A. Mitchell, A quantitative comparison between chemical dosing and electrocoagulation, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 211 (2002) 233-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7757(02)00285-6
[41] E. Bazrafshan, L. Mohammadi, A. Ansari-Moghaddam, A.H. Mahvi, Heavy metals removal from aqueous environments by electrocoagulation process– a systematic review, Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering 13 (2015) 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40201-015-0233-8
[42] S. Zodi, J.-N. Louvet, C. Michon, O. Potier, M.-N. Pons, F. Lapicque, J.-P. Leclerc, Electrocoagulation as a tertiary treatment for paper mill wastewater: Removal of non-biodegradable organic pollution and arsenic, Separation and Purification Technology 81 (2011) 62-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2011.07.002
[43] J.N. Hakizimana, B. Gourich, M. Chafi, Y. Stiriba, C. Vial, P. Drogui, J. Naja, Electrocoagulation process in water treatment: A review of electrocoagulation modeling approaches, Desalination 404 (2017) 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2016.10.011
[44] E. Henry Ezechi, M. Hasnain Isa, S.R.b.M. Kutty, Z. Ahmed, Electrochemical removal of boron from produced water and recovery, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 3 (2015) 1962-1973. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2015.05.015
[45] F.L. Lobo, H. Wang, T. Huggins, J. Rosenblum, K.G. Linden, Z.J. Ren, Low-energy hydraulic fracturing wastewater treatment via AC powered electrocoagulation with biochar, Journal of Hazardous Materials 309 (2016) 180-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.02.020
[46] N. Esmaeilirad, K. Carlson, P. Omur Ozbek, Influence of softening sequencing on electrocoagulation treatment of produced water, Journal of Hazardous Materials 283 (2015) 721-729. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.10.046
[47] E.H. Ezechi, M.H. Isa, S.R.M. Kutty, A. Yaqub, Boron removal from produced water using electrocoagulation, Process Safety and Environmental Protection 92 (2014) 509-514. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2014.08.003
[48] S. Zhao, G. Huang, G. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Fu, Hardness, COD and turbidity removals from produced water by electrocoagulation pretreatment prior to Reverse Osmosis membranes, Desalination 344 (2014) 454-462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2014.04.014
[49] E.T. Igunnu, Treatment of produced water by simultaneous removal of heavy metals and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a photoelectrochemical cell, University of Nottingham, 2014.
[50] J.E. Drewes, T.Y. Cath, P. Xu, J. Graydon, J. Veil, S. Snyder, An integrated framework for treatment and management of produced water, RPSEA Project (2009) 07122-07112.
[51] R.K. McGovern, A.M. Weiner, L. Sun, C.G. Chambers, S.M. Zubair, On the cost of electrodialysis for the desalination of high salinity feeds, Applied Energy 136 (2014) 649-661. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.09.050
[52] T. Sirivedhin, J. McCue, L. Dallbauman, Reclaiming produced water for beneficial use: salt removal by electrodialysis, Journal of Membrane Science 243 (2004) 335-343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2004.06.038
[53] C. Tsouris, R. Mayes, J. Kiggans, K. Sharma, S. Yiacoumi, D. DePaoli, S. Dai, Mesoporous carbon for capacitive deionization of saline water, Environmental science & technology 45 (2011) 10243-10249. https://doi.org/10.1021/es201551e
[54] S. Porada, R. Zhao, A. Van Der Wal, V. Presser, P. Biesheuvel, Review on the science and technology of water desalination by capacitive deionization, Progress in Materials Science 58 (2013) 1388-1442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2013.03.005
[55] S. Porada, L. Weinstein, R. Dash, A. Van Der Wal, M. Bryjak, Y. Gogotsi, P. Biesheuvel, Water desalination using capacitive deionization with microporous carbon electrodes, ACS applied materials & interfaces 4 (2012) 1194-1199. https://doi.org/10.1021/am201683j
[56] P. Xu, J.E. Drewes, D. Heil, G. Wang, Treatment of brackish produced water using carbon aerogel-based capacitive deionization technology, Water Research 42 (2008) 2605-2617. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.01.011
[57] U. Water, Wa ter, Facts and Trends, World Business Council for Sustainable Development (2006).
[58] M. Abdou, A. Carnegie, S.G. Mathews, K. McCarthy, M. O’Keefe, B. Raghuraman, W. Wei, C. Xian, Finding value in formation water, Oilfield Review 23 (2011) 24-35.
[59] G.W. Miller, Integrated concepts in water reuse: managing global water needs, Desalination 187 (2006) 65-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2005.04.068
[60] K.B. Gregory, R.D. Vidic, D.A. Dzombak, Water management challenges associated with the production of shale gas by hydraulic fracturing, Elements 7 (2011) 181-186. https://doi.org/10.2113/gselements.7.3.181
[61] D.L. Shaffer, L.H. Arias Chavez, M. Ben-Sasson, S. Romero-Vargas Castrillón, N.Y. Yip, M. Elimelech, Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions, Environmental science & technology 47 (2013) 9569-9583.
[62] R. Kimball, Key considerations for frac flowback/produced water reuse and treatment, NJWEA Annual Conference, 2011, pp. 9-13.
[63] M.E. Mantell, Produced water reuse and recycling challenges and opportunities across major shale plays, Proceedings of the technical workshops for the hydraulic fracturing study: water resources management. EPA, 2011, pp. 49-57.
[64] Z. Khatib, P. Verbeek, Water to value-produced water management for sustainable field development of mature and green fields, Journal of Petroleum Technology 55 (2003) 26-28. https://doi.org/10.2118/0103-0026-JPT
[65] S. Zha, P. Gusnawan, J. Lin, G. Zhang, N. Liu, J. Yu, Integrating a novel TS-af-HFM NF process for portable treatment of oilfield produced water, Chemical Engineering Journal 311 (2017) 203-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.11.090
[66] S. Jiménez, M.M. Micó, M. Arnaldos, E. Ferrero, J.J. Malfeito, F. Medina, S. Contreras, Integrated processes for produced water polishing: Enhanced flotation/sedimentation combined with advanced oxidation processes, Chemosphere 168 (2017) 309-317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.10.055.
[67] O. Monzon, Y. Yang, J. Kim, A. Heldenbrand, Q. Li, P.J.J. Alvarez, Microbial fuel cell fed by Barnett Shale produced water: Power production by hypersaline autochthonous bacteria and coupling to a desalination unit, Biochemical Engineering Journal 117, Part A (2017) 87-91.
[68] A. Venkatesan, P.C. Wankat, Produced water desalination: An exploratory study, Desalination 404 (2017) 328-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2016.11.013
[69] Z.A. Stoll, C. Forrestal, Z.J. Ren, P. Xu, Shale gas produced water treatment using innovative microbial capacitive desalination cell, Journal of Hazardous Materials 283 (2015) 847-855. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.10.015