The macro fiber composite (MFC) bonded effect analysis on the micro energy harvester performance and structural health monitoring system of woven kenaf turbine blade for vertical axis wind turbine application
A. Hamdan, F. Mustapha
The application of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is suitable for a low wind speed environment. Nevertheless, VAWT with kenaf turbine blade will promote additional green concept by utilizing biocomposite material. The innovation in turbine blade via Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) as Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system and micro energy harvester can enhance the VAWT technology application. Hence, this research objective is to evaluate the factors influencing the performance of micro energy harvester and to assess the feasibility of SHM application for biocomposite turbine blades. There are two methods to attach the MFC used in this study which are surface bonded and embedding into the turbine blade. Vibration simulation experiment and modal testing approach are conducted on the kenaf turbine blade and further analysis performed via Taguchi statistical analysis to determine the factors affecting the micro energy harvester and SHM performance. The results show that bonded to the surface is proposed as the best technique for promoting higher micro energy harvesting at the vibration range of 10 to 90 Hz. Furthermore, SHM system is proven to operate simultaneously with micro energy harvesting system in turbine blades.
Smart Polymers, Biocomposite, Taguchi Method, Woven Kenaf, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)
Published online 3/16/2017, 33 pages
Copyright © 2016 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA
Citation: A. Hamdan, F. Mustapha, ‘The macro fiber composite (MFC) bonded effect analysis on the micro energy harvester performance and structural health monitoring system of woven kenaf turbine blade for vertical axis wind turbine application’, Materials Research Foundations, Vol. 13, pp 141-173, 2017
The article was published as article 6 of the book Innovation in Smart Materials and Structural Health Monitoring for Composite Applications
 Ali, W. G. and S. W. Ibrahim (2012). “Power Analysis for Piezoelectric Energy Harvester.” Energy and Power Engineering 4: 496-505.
 Anton, S. R. and D. J. Inman (2008). Energy harvesting for unmanned aerial vehicles. Student Research Conference. Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, Virginia Space Grant Consortium.
 Anton, S. R. and H. A. Sodano (2007). “A review of power harvesting using piezoelectric materials (2003–2006).” Smart materials and structures 16: R1-R21.
 Anton, S. R., S. G. Taylor, et al. (2012). Multi-source energy harvesting for wind turbine structural healt monitoring node. Advances in Structural Health Management and Composite Structures, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.
 Aslam Bhutta, M. M., N. Hayat, et al. (2012). “Vertical axis wind turbine – A review of various configurations and design techniques.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 1926– 1939.
 Chong, W. T., A. Fazlizan, et al. (2012). “Early development of an innovative building integrated wind, solar and rain water harvester for urban high rise application.” Energy and Buildings 47: 201–207.
 Chong, W. T., M. S. Naghavi, et al. (2011). “Techno-economic analysis of a wind–solar hybrid renewable energy system with rainwater collection feature for urban high-rise application.” Applied Energy 88: 4067-4077.
 Chong, W. T., K. C. Pan, et al. (2013). “Performance investigation of a power augmented vertical axis wind turbine for urban high-rise application.” Renewable Energy 51: 388-397.
 Chong, W. T., S. C. Poh, et al. (2012). “Vertical axis wind turbine with omni-directional guide vane for urban high-rise buildings.” J. Cent. South Univ. 19: 727-732.
 Ciang, C. C., J.-R. Lee, et al. (2008). “Structural health monitoring for a wind turbine system: a review of damage detection methods.” Measurement Science & Technology 19(12).
 Dabiri, J. o. (2011). “Potential order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical-axis wind turbine arrays.” Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy 3.
 Elfrink, R., T. M. Kamel, et al. (2009). “Vibration energy harvesting with aluminum nitride-based piezoelectric devices.” Journal of Micromechanics and MicroEngineering 19(9): Paper No. 094005.
 Erturk, A., O. Bilgen, et al. (2008). “Power generation and shunt damping performance of a single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate unimorph: Analysis and Experiment.” Applied Physics Letters 93(22).
 Erturk, A. and D. J. Inman (2009). “An experimentally validated bimorph cantilever model for piezoelectric energy harvesting from base excitations.” Smart Materials and Structures 18(2).
 Farinholt, K. M., N. A. Pedrazas, et al. (2009). “An Energy Harvesting Comparison of Piezoelectric and Ionically Conductive Polymers.” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures 20: 633-642.
 Flynn, A. M. and S. R. Sanders (2002). “Fundamental limits on energy transfer and circuit considerations for piezoelectric transformers.” IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics 17(1): 8-14.
 Gavald, J., J. Massons, et al. (1990). “Experimental study on a self-adapting darrieus-savonius wind machine.” Solar & Wind Tecnology 7(4): 457-461.
 Goldschmidtboeing, F. and P. Woias (2008). “Characterization of different beam shapes for piezoelectric energy harvesting.” Journal of Micromachining and Microengineering 18: 104013.
 Greenblatt, D., M. Schulman, et al. (2012). “Vertical axis wind turbine performance enhancement using plasma actuators.” Renewable Energy 37: 345-354.
 Herbert, G. M. J., S. Iniyan, et al. (2007). “A review of wind energy technologies.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11: 1117–1145.
 Heung, S. K., K. Joo-Hyong, et al. (2011). “A Review of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Based on Vibration.” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing 12(6): 1129-1141.
 Hossain, A., A. K. M. P. Iqbal, et al. (2007). “Design and development of a 1/3 scale vertical axis ind turbine for electrical power generation.” Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering 1(2): 53–60.
 Howell, R., N. Qin, et al. (2010). “Wind tunnel and numerical study of a small vertical axis wind turbine.” Renewable Energy 35: 412–22.
 Hyun Jeong, S., Y.-T. Choi, et al. (2010). “Energy Harvesting Devices Using Macro-fiber Composite Materials.” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures 21(6): 647-658.
 Ibrahim, A.-B. (2009). “Building a wind turbine for rural home.” Energy for Sustainable Development 13 159–165.
 Islam, M., M. R. Amin, et al. (2007). Aerodynamic factors affecting performance of straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines. ASME international mechanical engineering congress and exposition.
 Islam, M., D. S. K. Ting, et al. (2008). “Aerodynamic models for Darrieus-type straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12: 1087-1109.
 Jeong, S. J., D. S. Lee, et al. (2011). “Properties of piezoelectric ceramic with textured structure for energy harvesting.” Ceramic International: 5-14.
 Kanellos, F. D. and N. D. Hatziargyriou (2008). “Control of variable speed wind turbines in islanded mode of operation.” Ieee Transactions on Energy Conversion 23(2): 535-543.
 Li, L. (2012). Vibrations Analysis of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. School of Engineering and Advanced Technology. New Zealand, Massey University. Master of Engineering.
 Liu, H., S. Zhang, et al. (2012). “Development of piezoelectric microcantilever flow sensor with wind-driven energy harvesting capability.” Applied physics letters 100: 223905.
 Mertens, S., G. van-Kuik, et al. (2003). “Performance of an H-Darrieus in the skewed flow on a roof.” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 125: 433–41.
 Mohamed, M. H. (2012). “Performance investigation of H-rotor Darrieus turbine with new airfoil shapes.” Energy 47: 522-530.
 Park, K.-s., T. Asim, et al. (2012). “Computational Fluid Dynamics based Fault Simulations of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbines.” Journal of Physics: Conference Series 364: 012138.
 Saeidi, D., A. Sedaghat, et al. (2013). “Aerodynamic design and economical evaluation of site specific small vertical axis wind turbines.” Applied Energy 101: 765–775.
 Sandra Eriksson, H. Bernhoff, et al. (2008). “Evaluation of different turbine concepts for wind power.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12: 1419–1434.
 Shen, D., J. H. Park, et al. (2009). “Micromachined PZT cantilever based on SOI structure for low frequency vibration energy harvesting.” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 154(1): 103-108.
 Sodano, H. A. (2003). Macro-Fiber Composites for Sensing, Actuation and Power Generation. Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
 Sodano, H. A., D. J. Inman, et al. (2004). “A review of power harvesting from vibration using piezoelectricmaterials.” The Shock and Vibration Digest 36(3): 197-205.
 Sodano, H. A., D. J. Inman, et al. (2005). “Comparison of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices for recharging batteries.” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures 16(10): 799-807.
 Sodano, H. A., G. H. Park, et al. (2003). Electric power harvesting using piezoelectric materials. Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
 Stein, P., M.-C. Hsu, et al. (2012). “Operator- and template-based modeling of solid geometry for Isogeometric Analysis with application to Vertical Axis Wind Turbine simulation.” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 213-216: 71–83.
 Sukanta, R., B. Agnimitra, et al. (2010). CFD analysis of an airfoil shaped three bladed H-Darrious rotor made from fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP). Proceedings of the 37th National & 4th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power, IIT Madras, Chennai, India.
 Sundaresan, M. J. and M. J. Schulz (August 2006). Smart Sensor System for Structural Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines. Midwest Research Institute., National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
 Sundaresan, M. J., M. J. Schulz, et al. (August 1999). Structural Health Monitoring Static Test of a Wind Turbine Blade. Midwest Research Institute, National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
 Taguchi, G. (1990). Introduction to Quality Engineering. Tokyo, Asian Productivity Organization.
 Tai, F.-Z., K.-W. Kang, et al. (2012). “Study on the analysis method for the vertical-axis wind turbines having Darrieus blades.” Renewable Energy: 1-6.
 Takao, M., H. Kuma, et al. (2009). “A straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with a directed guide vane row effect of guide vane geometry on the performance.” Journal of Thermal Science 18: 54-7.
 Tien, C. M. T. and N. S. Goo (2010). “Use of a piezocomposite generating element in energy harvesting.” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures 21(14): 1427-1436.
 Vandenberghe, D. and E. Dick (1987). “A free vortex simulation method for the straight bladed vertical axis wind turbine.” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 26: 307-324.
 Wang, Y. (2012). Simultaneous Energy Harvesting and Vibration Control via Piezoelectric Materials. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Blacksburg. Doctor of Philosophy: 138.
 Yeh, T.-H. and L. Wang (2008). “A study on generator capacity for wind turbines under various tower heights and rated wind speeds using Weibull distribution.” Ieee Transactions on Energy Conversion 23(2): 592-602.
 Zhu, D., A. Almusallam, et al. (2010). A Bimorph Multi-layer Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester. Proceedings of Power MEMS Belgium.