Damage identification for composite panels using PZT sensor
Nisreen N. Ali Al-Adnani, F. Mustapha
Real-time monitoring of structural integrity is an important challenge. This article presents the results of damage detection in real time for two materials: Al 6061-T6 and twill weave carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composite. The natural frequency as a global dynamic technique was adopted and the structure was evaluated based on the change in the natural frequency. A square thin plate with simply supported edges was investigated under the effect of sinusoidal signal which was generated via mechanical vibration exciter to carry out the natural frequency of the panel. A smart sensor (piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate) bonded to the surface of the composite panel was used to capture the signals. Experiments demonstrate the effect of change in crack depth and the response of these panels. The results were measured via monitoring technique and evaluated using root mean square deviation index as statistical analysis.
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), Damage Identification, Twill Weave Carbon Fibre, Composites, Smart Sensor, Root Mean Square Deviation
Published online 3/16/2017, 19 pages
Copyright © 2016 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA
Citation: Nisreen N. Ali Al-Adnani, F. Mustapha, ‘Damage identification for composite panels using PZT sensor’, Materials Research Foundations, Vol. 13, pp 78-96, 2017
The article was published as article 4 of the book Innovation in Smart Materials and Structural Health Monitoring for Composite Applications
 Annamdas, V. G. M., Yang, Y., and Soh, C. K. (2010). Impedance based concrete monitoring using embedded PZT sensors. International journal of civil and structural engineering. 1(3): 414-424.
 Aris, K. M., Mustapha, F., Sapuan, S., and Majid, D. A Structural Health Monitoring of a Pitch Catch Active Sensing of PZT Sensors on CFRP Panels: A Preliminary Approach. DOI: 10.5772/48097. Book, Chapter 1. Retrieved 23 Jan 2015 from:
 Aris, K. D. M., Mustapha, F., Salit, M. S., and Majid, D. L. A. A. (2014). Condition Structural Index using Principal Component Analysis for undamaged, damage and repair conditions of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic laminate. Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 25(5), 575-584.
 Baptista, F. G. and Filho, J. V. (2009). A new impedance measurement system for PZT-based structural health monitoring. Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on, 58(10), 3602-3608.
 Caccese, V., Mewer, R., and Vel, S. S. (2004a). Detection of bolt load loss in hybrid composite/metal bolted connections. Engineering Structures, 26(7), 895-906.
 Caccese, V., Richard Mewer, a., and Vel, S. S. (2004b). Detection of Bolt Load Loss Using Frequency Domain Techniques, October 24-27, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA. Proceeding of the 15th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies.
 Cawley P. and Sarsentis N. (1988). A Quick Method for the Measurement of Structural Damping. Mechanical System and Signal Processing, 2(1): 39-47.
 Giurgiutiu, V., and Zagrai, A. (2005). Damage detection in thin plates and aerospace structures with the electro-mechanical impedance method. Structural Health Monitoring. 4(2): 99-118.
 Kessler, S. S., Spearing, S. M., Atalla, M. J., Cesnik, C. E., & Soutis, C. (2002). Damage detection in composite materials using frequency response methods. Composites Part B: Engineering, 33(1), 87-95.
 Kim, J.-T., Ryu, Y.-S., Cho, H.-M., and Stubbs, N. (2003). Damage identification in beam-type structures: frequency-based method vs mode-shape-based method. Engineering Structures, 25(1), 57-67.
 LabVIEWTM SinalExpress, Getting started with LabVIEW SignalExpress, National Instrument June 2012, Manual.
 Min, J., Shim, H., and Yun, C.-B. Electromechanical Impedance-based Damage Identification Using Multiple Piezoelectric Sensors. The 6th International Workshop on Advaced Smart Materials and Smart Structures Technology (ANCRiSST 2011) July 25-26, 2011, Dalian. China.
 Naidu, A., and Soh, C. (2004). Damage severity and propagation characterization with admittance signatures of piezo transducers. Smart Materials and Structures, 13(2), 393.
 Neto, R. M. F., Steffen, V., Rade, D. A., Gallo, C. A., and Palomino, L. V. (2011). A low-cost electromechanical impedance-based SHM architecture for multiplexed piezoceramic actuators. Structural Health Monitoring, 10(4), 391-402.
 Nisreen N. Ali, F. M., S. M. Sapuan,R. S. M. Rashid (2015). An Approach and Experimental Technique for Damage Detection of Composite Panels Using PZT Sensor. International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering Research 3(1), 29-38.
 Park, G., and Inman, D. J. 2007. Structural health monitoring using piezoelectric impedance measurements. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 365(1851): 373-392.
 Park, G., Farrar, C. R., di Scalea, F. L., and Coccia, S. (2006). Performance assessment and validation of piezoelectric active-sensors in structural health monitoring. Smart Materials and Structures. 15(6): 1673.-1683.
 Panigrahi, R., Bhalla, S., and Gupta, A. (2010). A Low-Cost Variant of Electro-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) Technique For Structural Health Monitoring. Experimental Techniques, 34(2), 25-29.
 Peairs, D. M. (2006). High frequency modeling and experimental analysis for implementation of impedance-based structural health monitoring. PhD. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
 Raju, V., (1997). Implementing Impedance-based Health Monitoring, Master’s thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
 Rutherford, A. C., Park, G., Sohn, H., and Farrar, C. R. (2004). The Use of Electrical Impedance Moments for Structural Health Monitoring. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 22nd IMAC.
 Salawu, O. S. 1997. Detection of structural damage through changes in frequency: a review. Engineering Structures, 19(9): 718-723.
 Schulz, M., Pai, P., & Inman, D. (1999). Health monitoring and active control of composite structures using piezoceramic patches. Composites Part B: Engineering, 30(7), 713-725.
 Spectral Density. Retrieved 23 Jan 2015 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectral_density.
 Srinivas, V., Sasmal, S., & Ramanjaneyulu, K. (2009). Studies on methodological developments in structural damage identification. Structural Durability and Health Monitoring, 5(2), 133-160.
 SRS, Stanford Research System. Retrieved 23 Jan 2015 from: www.thinkSRS.com.
 Waanders, J. W. (1991). Piezoelectric Ceramics, Proprties and applications, Philips Components, EINDHOVEN, The Netherlands. First Edition April 1991.
 Wu, Z., Qing, X. P., and Chang, F.-K. (2009). Damage detection for composite laminate plates with a distributed hybrid PZT/FBG sensor network. Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures. (9 pp.).
 Yang, Y., Divsholi, B. S., and Soh, C. K. (2010). A reusable PZT transducer for monitoring initial hydration and structural health of concrete. Sensors, 10(5), 5193-5208.
 Yang, Y., Liu, H., Annamdas, V. G. M., and Soh, C. K. (2009). Monitoring damage propagation using PZT impedance transducers. Smart Materials and Structures, 18(4), 045003, (9 pp.).
 Zumpano, G., and Meo, M. (2008). Damage localization using transient non-linear elastic wave spectroscopy on composite structures. International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, 43(3), 217-230.