RF/ microwaves biological effects and dielectric properties of human tissues



Abstract. Nowadays, the microwave and radiofrequencies are widely used (mobile phone, base station, wi-fi…) closed and near to the Human body (Children [1], pregnant [2], patients [3]…). The biological effects and health implications of exposure to radio frequency radiation have been widely investigated. Many factors affect the exposure of human body to radiofrequency radiations, this make the exposure assessment in a risk study very difficult to interpret. Ideally, the exact exposure dose should be measured, but there is no specified measure. In experimental situations, specific absorption rate (SAR), which is a measure of the maximum energy absorbed by a unit of mass of exposed tissue of a person, is used. Most of the research related to the RF and microwaves health effects neglects the most important parameter, which is the no uniformity of the biological tissues properties and theirs compositions. In this study, we will present the different models of the human body with its various Dielectric Properties of tissues, and see how it can affect the simulated and measured SAR values in human body.

Biological Effects, Microwave Radiation, Mobile Phone, Human Tissues, Dielectric Materials

Published online 12/10/2016, 7 pages
Copyright © 2016 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA
Citation: M.H. QADDI, M.N. SRIFI, ‘RF/ microwaves biological effects and dielectric properties of human tissues’, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 1, pp 207-213, 2016
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21741/9781945291197-52

The article was published as article 52 of the book Dielectric Materials and Applications

[1] G. Bit-Babik, A. W. Guy, C-K. Chou, A. Faraone, M. Kanda, A. Gessner, J. Wang and O. Fujiwara. Simulation of Exposure and SAR Estimation for Adult and Child Heads Exposed to Radiofrequency Energy from Portable Communication Devices. RADIATION RESEARCH 163, 580–590 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR3353
[2] Tomoaki Nagaoka, Toshihiro Togashi, Kazuyuki Saito,Masaharu Takahashi, Koichi Ito and Soichi Watanabe, An anatomically realistic whole-body pregnant-woman model and specific absorption rates for pregnant-woman exposure to electromagnetic plane waves from 10 MHz to 2 GHz. 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 6731. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/52/22/012
[3] L. S. Xu,, Max Q.-H. Meng, and Chao Hu, Effects of Dielectric Values of Human Body on Specific Absorption Rate Following 430, 800, and 1200 MHz RF Exposure to Ingestible Wireless Device. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, VOL. 14, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010.
[4] Ismail Uysal Price William DeHay Erdem Altunbas Jean-Pierre Emond R. Scott Rasmussen David Ulrich, Non-Thermal Effects of Radio Frequency Exposure on Biologic Pharmaceuticals for RFID Applications, IEEE RFID 2010.
[5] International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), “Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (Up to 300 GHz),” Health Physics 74: 494-520 (1998).
[6] J. L. Kirschvink, “Microwave absorption by magnetite: a possible mechanism for coupling nonthermal levels of radiation to biological systems,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 17, pp. 187–194, 1996.
[7] E. Marani and H. K. P. Feiraband, “Future perspectives in microwave applications in life sciences,” Eur. J. Morphol., vol. 32, pp. 330–334, 1994.
[8] M. Porcelli, G. Cacciapuoti, S. Fusco, R. Massa, G. D’Ambrosio, C. Bertoldo, M. D. Rosa, and V. Zappia, “Non-thermal effects of microwaves on proteins: thermophilic enzymes as model system,” FEBS Lett., vol. 402, pp. 102–106, 1997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0014-5793(96)01505-0
[9] http://www.wisenv.com/radiation/health-effects.html
[10] D. I. de Pomerai, B. Smith, A. Dawe, K.North, T. Smith, D. B. Archer, I. R. Duce, D. Jones, and E. P. M. Candido, “Microwave radiation can alter protein conformation without bulk heating,” FEBS Lett., vol. 543, pp. 93–97, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0014-5793(03)00413-7
[11] L.J. Challis, Mechanisms for Interaction Between RF Fields and Biological Tissue. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 7:S98^S106 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bem.20119
[12] Robert F. Cleveland, Jr. Jerry L. Ulcek, Questions and Answers about Biological Effects and Potential Hazards of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Office of Engineering and Technology Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554, OET BULLETIN 56, august 1999.
[13] C.K. Chou, H. Bassen, J. Osepchuk, Q. Balzano, R. Petersen, M. Meltz, R. Cleveland, J.C. Lin, and L. Heynick, Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Exposure: Tutorial Review on Experimental Dosimetry, Bioelectromagnetics 17:195-208 (1 996)
[14] RONALD KITCHEN, RF and Microwave Radiation Safety Handbook, 1993,2001
[15] Camelia Gabriel, Compilation Of The Dielectric Properties Of Body Tissues At Rf And Microwave Frequencies, February 1996
[16] http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/tissprop/htmlclie/htmlclie.php
[17] Richmond, Biological effects and health implications of microwave radiation, Stephen F. Cleary department of biophysics medical college of Virginia. pp 1-261, (1971).
[18] Brian B. Beard, Wolfgang Kainz, Teruo Onishi, Takahiro Iyama, Soichi Watanabe, Osamu Fujiwara, Jianqing Wang, Giorgi Bit-Babik, Antonio Faraone, Joe Wiart, Andreas Christ, Niels Kuster, Ae-Kyoung Lee, Hugo Kroeze, Martin Siegbahn, Jafar Keshvari, Houman Abrishamkar, Winfried Simon, Dirk Manteuffel, Neviana Nikoloski, Comparisons of Computed Mobile Phone Induced SAR in the SAM Phantom to That in Anatomically Correct Models of the Human Head. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 48, NO. 2, MAY 2006
[19] Anu Goel and Asst. Prof. Richa, Evaluating the Effect of Distance on Specific Absorption Rate Values inside a Human Head Model. ISSN 2351-8014 Vol. 12 No. 1 Nov. 2014, pp. 186-189.
[20] Antonios Drossos, Veli Santomaa, Niels Kuster, The Dependence of Electromagnetic Energy Absorption Upon Human Head Tissue Composition in the Frequency Range of 300–3000 MHz. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 48, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2000.
[21] M Mart´ınez-B´ urdalo, A Sanchis, A Mart´ın and R Villar, Comparison of SAR and induced current densities in adults and children exposed to electromagnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices. Phys. Med. Biol. 55 (2010) 1041–1055. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/55/4/009