Residual Stress Analysis on Oxide Layers Obtained by High Temperature Oxidation of Chromia-Forming Alloys

Residual Stress Analysis on Oxide Layers Obtained by High Temperature Oxidation of Chromia-Forming Alloys


download PDF

Abstract: The oxide layers formed during high temperature oxidation of metallic alloys depend on experimental conditions (oxidation gas composition, gas pressure, temperature, duration etc…) and often with complex structure or multilayer structure. Residual stress can be generated not only dues to oxide growth at high temperature (growth stress) but also during cooling of layer/metallic alloy system after oxidation (thermal stress). The determination of the level and the distribution of the residual stresses in oxide layers are very important to determine the influence of oxidation condition in one hand and to estimate the mechanical component’s durability at high temperature in the other hand. Two Chromia-forming alloys have been studied: a nickel based Inconel 600 alloy (Ni-17%Cr-8%Fe-1%Mn) and a ferritic AISI 430 steel (Fe-17%Cr-1%Mn). Oxidation test has been carried out at different temperatures (from 600°C to 900°C) for various durations (from 2 h to 96 h) under different absolute humilities (from 0% to 19%). After oxidation of Inconel 600, the oxide layers are composed essentially by an external NiO layer and by an internal spinel NiCr2O4 layer. While the AISI 430 steel forms an external spinel Mn1.5Cr1.5O4 layer and an internal Cr2O3 layer. The residual stresses (RS) have been analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) method in each of oxide layers after oxidation tests. In oxide layers, the RS are compressive and the RS levels are more important in internal layer than those in external layer. Overall, the compressive RS in oxide layers increase with oxidation temperature, oxidation duration and absolute humidity.

High Temperature Oxidation, Residual Stress, Water Vapor, X-Ray Diffraction Stress Analysis, Chromia-Forming Alloy

Published online 12/22/2016, 6 pages
Copyright © 2016 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: N. LI, J. XIAO, N. PRUD’HOMME, L. LI, V. JI, ‘Residual Stress Analysis on Oxide Layers Obtained by High Temperature Oxidation of Chromia-Forming Alloys’, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 2, pp 365-370, 2017


The article was published as article 62 of the book Residual Stresses 2016

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

[1]. X. Cheng, Z. Jiang, D. Wei, J. Zhao, B.J. Monaghan, R.J. Longbottom, L. Jiang, Characteristics of oxide scale formed on ferritic stainless steels in simulated reheating atmosphere, Surf. Coat. Technol. 258 (2014) 257-267.
[2]. C.T. Fujii, R.A. Meussner, The mechanism of the high-temperature oxidation of iron-chromium alloys in water vapor J. Electrochem. Soc. 111 (1964) 1215-1221.
[3]. S. Jianian, Z. Longjiang, L. Tiefan, High-temperature oxidation of Fe-Cr alloys in wet oxygen, Oxid. Met. 48 (1997) 347-356.
[4]. H. Asteman, J.E. Svensson, L.G. Johansson, M. Norell, Indication of chromium oxide hydroxide evaporation during oxidation of 304L at 873 K in the presence of 10% water vapor, Oxid. Met. 52 (1999) 95-111.
[5]. H. Asteman, J.E. Svensson, L.G. Johansson, Oxidation of 310 steel in H2O/O2 mixtures at 600°C: the effect of water-vapour-enhanced chromium evaporation, Corros. Sci. 44 (2002) 2635-2649.
[6]. J. Ehlers, D.J. Young, E.J. Smaardijk, A.K. Tyagi, H.J. Penkalla, L. Singheiser, W.J. Quadakkers, Enhanced oxidation of the 9%Cr steel P91 in water vapour containing environments, Corros. Sci. 48 (2006) 3428-3454.
[7]. N. Li, J. Xiao, N. Prud’homme, Z. Chen, V. Ji, Residual stresses in oxide scale formed on Fe–17Cr stainless steel, Appl. Surf. Sci. 316 (2014) 108-113.
[8]. S. Chevalier, C. Valot, G. Bonnet, J.C. Colson, J.P. Larpin, The reactive element effect on thermally grown chromia scale residual stress, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 343 (2003) 257-264.
[9]. Test Method for Residual Stresses Analysis by X-ray diffraction, in: European Standard no NF15305, 2009.
[10]. A.M. Huntz, Stresses in NiO, Cr2O3 and Al2O3 oxide scales, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 201 (1995) 211-228.
[11]. W.N. Liu, X. Sun, E. Stephens, M.A. Khaleel, Life prediction of coated and uncoated metallic interconnect for solid oxide fuel cell applications, J. Power Sources 189 (2009) 1044-1050.