Investigation of the friction behavior of uni- and bidirectional non-crimp fabrics

Investigation of the friction behavior of uni- and bidirectional non-crimp fabrics


download PDF

Abstract. The friction behavior of engineering textiles directly affects the forming quality during composite molding processes. In forming tests of dry engineering textiles large relative slip between plies and the tools is observed. The resulting tangential contact stresses influence the material’s membrane stresses, which in turn impact the fabric’s deformation and potentially lead to forming defects such as gapping or ruptures of the textile. The characterization of friction is commonly conducted via relative motion between a fabric ply and either another fabric ply (ply-ply) or a tool (tool-ply) under controlled transverse pressure. The resulting behavior of a textile reinforcement depends on the mesoscopic structure of its unit cell and the material of its constituents. In this work, the tangential friction behavior at interfaces between ply and tooling and between plies of a unidirectional and a bidirectional non-crimp fabric are investigated in sled pull-over-tests. The behavior is analyzed with respect to the applied normal forces, the relative velocity and the relative fiber orientation. A generally rate-independent behavior is observed. Tool-ply friction is only slightly affected by the applied pressure, while ply-ply friction is strongly influenced by the stitching pattern at the contact interface.

Fabrics/Textiles, Experimental Characterization, Friction, UD-NCF, Biax-NCF

Published online 4/24/2024, 9 pages
Copyright © 2024 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: SCHÄFER Bastian, NAOUAR Naim, KÄRGER Luise, Investigation of the friction behavior of uni- and bidirectional non-crimp fabrics, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 41, pp 540-548, 2024


The article was published as article 60 of the book Material Forming

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

[1] W.-R. Yu, P. Harrison, A. Long, Finite element forming simulation for non-crimp fabrics using a non-orthogonal constitutive equation, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 36 (2005) 1079–1093.
[2] G.D. Lawrence, S. Chen, N.A. Warrior, L.T. Harper, The influence of inter-ply friction during double-diaphragm forming of biaxial NCFs, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 167 (2023) 107426.
[3] U. Sachs, R. Akkerman, K. Fetfatsidis, E. Vidal-Sallé, J. Schumacher, G. Ziegmann, S. Allaoui, G. Hivet, B. Maron, K. Vanclooster, S.V. Lomov, Characterization of the dynamic friction of woven fabrics, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 67 (2014) 289–298.
[4] ASTM Standard, Test Method for Static and Kinetic Coefficients of Friction of Plastic Film and Sheeting: D1894-14, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014
[5] N. Fulleringer, J.-F. Bloch, Forced stick-slip oscillations allow the measurement of the friction force: Application to paper materials, Tribology International 91 (2015) 94–98.
[6] S. Allaoui, G. Hivet, A. Wendling, P. Ouagne, D. Soulat, Influence of the dry woven fabrics meso-structure on fabric/fabric contact behavior, Journal of Composite Materials 46 (2012) 627–639.
[7] B. Cornelissen, U. Sachs, B. Rietman, R. Akkerman, Dry friction characterisation of carbon fibre tow and satin weave fabric for composite applications, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 56 (2014) 127–135.
[8] S. Allaoui, C. Cellard, G. Hivet, Effect of inter-ply sliding on the quality of multilayer interlock dry fabric preforms, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 68 (2015) 336–345.
[9] P. Quenzel, H. Kröger, B. Manin, K. Ngoc Vu, T.X. Duong, T. Gries, M. Itskov, R.A. Sauer, Material characterisation of biaxial glass-fibre non-crimp fabrics as a function of ply orientation, stitch pattern, stitch length and stitch tension, Journal of Composite Materials 56 (2022) 3971–3991.
[10] C. Poppe, D. Dörr, F. Kraus, L. Kärger, Experimental and numerical investigation of the contact behavior during FE forming simulation of continuously reinforced composites in wet compression molding, AIP Conference Proceedings 2113 (2019) 020002.
[11] J. Hüttl, F. Albrecht, C. Poppe, F. Lorenz, B. Thoma, L. Kärger, P. Middendorf, F. Henning, Investigations on friction behaviour and forming simulation of plain woven fabrics for wet compression moulding, Proceedings of Sampe Europe, Stuttgart (2017).
[12] F. Yu, S. Chen, L.T. Harper, N.A. Warrior, Investigation into the effects of inter-ply sliding during double diaphragm forming for multi-layered biaxial non-crimp fabrics, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 150 (2021) 106611.
[13] F.N. Nezami, T. Gereke, C. Cherif, Analyses of interaction mechanisms during forming of multilayer carbon woven fabrics for composite applications, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 84 (2016) 406–416.
[14] K.A. Fetfatsidis, D. Jauffrès, J.A. Sherwood, J. Chen, Characterization of the tool/fabric and fabric/fabric friction for woven-fabric composites during the thermostamping process, International Journal of Material Forming 6 (2013) 209–221.
[15] W. Najjar, C. Pupin, X. Legrand, S. Boude, D. Soulat, P. Dal Santo, Analysis of frictional behaviour of carbon dry woven reinforcement, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 33 (2014) 1037–1047.
[16] E.I. Avgoulas, D.M. Mulvihill, A. Endruweit, M.P.F. Sutcliffe, N.A. Warrior, D.S.A. de Focatiis, A.C. Long, Frictional behaviour of non-crimp fabrics (NCFs) in contact with a forming tool, Tribology International 121 (2018) 71–77.
[17] Y. Liu, Z. Xiang, Z. Wu, X. Hu, Experimental investigation of friction behaviors of glass-fiber woven fabric, Textile Research Journal 93 (2023) 18–32.
[18] L. Montero, S. Allaoui, G. Hivet, Characterisation of the mesoscopic and macroscopic friction behaviours of glass plain weave reinforcement, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 95 (2017) 257–266.
[19] E. Vidal-Sallé, F. Massi, Friction Measurement on Dry Fabric for Forming Simulation of Composite Reinforcement, KEM 504-506 (2012) 319–324.