Formability analyses of AA6016-T4 aluminum alloy sheets subjected to roping

Formability analyses of AA6016-T4 aluminum alloy sheets subjected to roping

TVEIT Sigbjørn, REYES Aase

download PDF

Abstract. Due to its good formability characteristics, AA6xxx aluminum alloys have become popular as a light-weight alternative to steel for car bodywork components produced by stamping. In the design of forming operations, numerical simulations are often used, and accurate material models to describe plasticity and forming limits are important to successfully design optimized products and production processes to avoid the reliance on trial and error. For aluminum alloys used in sheet metal forming, the anisotropic plasticity characteristics caused by the directional rolling process has therefore been subject to extensive research over the last decades. A previous experimental program on AA6016-T4 sheets showed that the formability of the material is strongly affected by roping caused by rolling. In this paper, models of anisotropic plasticity, isotropic hardening, instability, and fracture, along with an approach to describe the effects of roping for proportional strain paths are used to predict forming and fracture limits in LS-DYNA.

Aluminum Alloys, FEA Based FLD, Roping

Published online 4/24/2024, 10 pages
Copyright © 2024 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: TVEIT Sigbjørn, REYES Aase, Formability analyses of AA6016-T4 aluminum alloy sheets subjected to roping, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 41, pp 989-998, 2024


The article was published as article 109 of the book Material Forming

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

[1] A. Graf, W. Hosford, Effect of Changing Strain Paths on Forming Limit Diagrams of Al 2008-T4, Metall. Trans. A. 24 (1993) 2503-2512.
[2] A. Graf, W. Hosford, Influence of strain-path changes on forming limit diagrams of Al 6111 T4, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 36(10) (1994) 897-8910.
[3] D. Vysochinskiy, T. Coudert, O.S. Hopperstad, O.-G. Lademo, A. Reyes, Experimental study on the formability of AA6016 sheets pre-strained by rolling, Int. J. Mater. Forming. 11(4) (2018). 541-557. https://10.1007/s12289-017-1363-6
[4] D. Vysochinskiy, Formability of aluminium alloy subjected to prestrain by rolling, PhD Thesis, Department of Structural Engineering, Trondheim, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2014.
[5] W. Muhammad, U. Ali, A. P. Brahme, J. Kang, R. K. Mishra, K. Inal, Experimental analyses and numerical modeling of texture evolution and the development of surface roughness during bending of an extruded aluminum alloy using a multiscale modeling framework, Int. J. Plast. 117 (2019) 93-121.
[6] Y. Hu, G. Zhou, R. Liu, X. Yuan, L. Cao, B. Yang, D. Li, P. Wu, On the correlation between roping, texture, and morphology of aluminium alloy sheets, J. Mater. Res. Technol. 26 (2023) 571-586.
[7] Y. Hu, G. Zhou, X. Yuan, D. Li, L. Cao, W. Zhang, P. Wu, An artificial neural network-based model for roping prediction in aluminum alloy sheet, Acta Mater. 245 (2023) 118605.
[8] O. Engler, C. Schäfer, H. J. Brinkman, Crystal-plasticity simulation of the correlation of microtexture and roping in AA 6xxx Al–Mg–Si sheet alloys for automotive applications, Acta Mater. 60(13–14) (2012) 5217-5232.
[9] O. Engler, H. Moo-Young, C. N. Tome, Crystal-plasticity analysis of ridging in ferritic stainless steel sheets, Metall. Mater. Trans. A (Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science). 36A(11) (2005) 3127-3139.
[10] L. Qin, M. Seefeldt, P. Van Houtte, Analysis of roping of aluminum sheet materials based on the meso-scale moving window approach, Acta Mater. 84 (2015) 215-228.
[11] H. Jin, Breakup of texture alignment and reduction of roping in AA6111 aluminium alloy, Mater. Sci. Technol. 33(11) (2017) 1388-1396.
[12] S. Tveit, Formability analysis of AA6016-T4 aluminium alloy sheets subjected to roping, MSc Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering and Energy Technology, Oslo, Oslo Metropolitan University, 2020.
[13] Z. Marciniak, K. Kuczynski, Limit strains in the process of stretch-forming sheet metal, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 9 (1967) 600-620.
[14] J. O. Hallquist, Theoretical Manual, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, California, 1998.
[15] LS-DYNA Keyword User’s Manual. Volume II Material Models, Version 971 R6.1.0, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, California, 2012.
[16] H. Aretz, Applications of a new plane stress yield function to orthotropic steel and aluminium sheet metals, Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 12 (2004) 491-509.
[17] J. D. Bressan, J. A. Williams, The use of a shear instability criterion to predict local necking in sheet metal deformation, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 25(3) (1983) 155-168.
[18] M. G. Cockcroft, D. J. Latham, Ductility and the Workability of Metals, Journal of the institute of metals. 96 (1968) 33-39.
[19] P. D. Wu, D. J. Lloyd, Analysis of surface roughening in AA6111 automotive sheet, Acta Mater. 52(7) (2004) 1785-1798.
[20] H. Aretz, A comparison between geometrical and material imperfections in localized necking prediction, in: E. Cueto, F. Chinesta (Ed.), Proc. 10th ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, AIP Conference Proceedings, 2007, pp. 287-292.
[21] MATLAB & Simulink, Sum of Sine Models – R2020a, MathWorks Nordic, [Online]. Read on the 7th April 2020