Sunlight mediated enhanced removal of metoprolol using graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)

Sunlight mediated enhanced removal of metoprolol using graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)

KHEW Chung Wei, LEONG Kah Hon, SIM Lan Ching, ABD AZIZ Azrina, DAI Chaomeng, OH Wen-Da, IBRAHIM Shaliza

download PDF

Abstract. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a photocatalyst that has recently been given a lot of attention due to its effectiveness in wastewater and environmental treatment, solar energy utilization, biomedical applications, etc. In this study, g-C3N4 was synthesized and characterized to carry out the degradation of metoprolol tartrate salt (MET), which is classified as an emerging contaminant. MET is one of the most commonly used pharmaceuticals to treat patients with cardiovascular diseases and disorders, a common disease in Malaysia. Recent discoveries of MET in surface waters and drinking water raise awareness and concerns. g-C3N4 was synthesized using solid urea by placing it in a muffle furnace of 550°C for 3 hours. The photocatalytic activities of g-C3N4 were investigated by photodegradation of MET, g-C3N4 of different dosages were added into MET-containing solution, and a dark reaction was carried out for 24 hours for complete adsorption equilibrium. Various physical and chemical analyses were conducted to elucidate the properties of g-C3N4, such as FESEM, FTIR and UV-Vis. The absorbance and reflectance graphs of g-C3N4 show that there will be higher absorption in the visible light spectra. The results show that the optimum dosage to treat 10 ppm of MET is by using 0.3 g of g-C3N4. Under sunlight irradiation of 4 hours, the degradation of MET achieved 54.6% of removal. Hence, it proves that g-C3N4 nanosheet can be applied to remove complex pollutants such as MET under sunlight irradiation. This path is an alternative removal method for MET in a sustainable approach.

Sunlight, g-C3N4, Metoprolol, Photocatalyst

Published online 5/20/2023, 7 pages
Copyright © 2023 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: KHEW Chung Wei, LEONG Kah Hon, SIM Lan Ching, ABD AZIZ Azrina, DAI Chaomeng, OH Wen-Da, IBRAHIM Shaliza, Sunlight mediated enhanced removal of metoprolol using graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 29, pp 28-34, 2023


The article was published as article 4 of the book Sustainable Processes and Clean Energy Transition

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

[1] F.A.M. Nasir, S.M. Praveena, A.Z. Aris, Public awareness level and occurrence of pharmaceutical residues in drinking water with potential health risk: A study from Kajang (Malaysia). Ecotox and Environ Safe, 185 (2019) 109681.
[2] S.M. Praveena, M.Z.M. Rashid, F.A.M. Nasir, W.S. Yee, A.Z. Aris, Occurrence and potential human health risk of pharmaceutical residues in drinking water from Putrajaya (Malaysia). Ecotox and Environ Safe, 180 (2019) 549-556.
[3] F. Lu, D. Astruc, Nanocatalysts and other nanomaterials for water remediation from organic pollutants. Coordin. Chem. Rev. 408 (2020) 213180.
[4] D. Awfa, M. Ateia, M. Fujii, MS. Johnson, C. Yoshimura, Photodegradation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in water treatment using carbonaceous-TiO2 composite: a critical review of recent literature. Water Res. 142 (2018) 26-45.
[5] PF. Lim, KH. Leong, LC. Sim, WD. Oh, YH. Chin, P. Saravanan, C. Dai, Mechanism insight of dual synergistic effects of plasmonic Pd-SrTiO3 for enhanced solar energy photocatalysis. Appl. Phys. A, 126 (2020) 1-10.
[6] Q. Zhang, R. Du, G. Tan, P. Chen, G. Yu, S. Deng, Efficient degradation of typical pharmaceuticals in water using a novel TiO2/ONLH nano-photocatalyst under natural sunlight. J. Hazar. Mat. 403 (2021) 123582.
[7] J. Liu, T. Zhang, Z. Wang, G. Dawson, W. Chen, Simple Pyrolysis of Urea into Graphitic Carbon Nitride with Recyclable Adsorption and Photocatalytic Activity. J. Mater. Chem. 21 (2011) 14398-14401.
[8] W. Aiwu, W. Chundong, F. Li, W. Winnie, L. Yucheng, Recent Advances of Graphitic Carbon Nitride-Based Structures and Applications in Catalyst, Sensing, Imaging, and LEDs. Nano-Micro Lett. 9 (2017) 47.
[9] Z. Bicheng, X. Pengfei, L. Yao, H. Wingkei, Y. Jiaguo, Fabrication and photocatalytic activity enhanced mechanism of direct Zscheme g-C3N4/Ag2WO4 photocatalyst. Appl. Surf. Sci. 391 (2016) 175-183.