The influence of Particle Hardness on Wear in Sheet Metal Forming

The influence of Particle Hardness on Wear in Sheet Metal Forming

ARINBJARNAR Úlfar, KNOLL Maximilian, MOGHADAM Marcel, NIELSEN Chris Valentin

download PDF

Abstract. Particles exist in any tribo-system, whether it is closed to the environment or not. These particles originate from various sources, for example: contaminants such as dust or fibres from the environment; wear debris from abrasive/adhesive wear; and particles that are intentionally included in lubricant formulations. The particles affect the tribo-system in which they occur, but it is not always clear how. In this work, three types of chemically inert particles of similar size but different hardness are mixed with an otherwise pure oil and tested tribologically. Three tribological testing methods, pin-on-disc, four-ball, and bending-under-tension, are used to investigate the effect of the particles on friction and wear under sheet metal forming conditions. The hardness of the particles had a large effect on wear development, but little to no effect on the coefficient of friction found by pin-on-disc testing. Including particles of any hardness helped the oil in which they were included resist variation in load, leading to less wear for higher loads compared to the pure oil.

Tribological Testing, Particles, Contamination, Lubricant Additive

Published online 4/19/2023, 12 pages
Copyright © 2023 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: ARINBJARNAR Úlfar, KNOLL Maximilian, MOGHADAM Marcel, NIELSEN Chris Valentin, The influence of Particle Hardness on Wear in Sheet Metal Forming, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 28, pp 879-890, 2023


The article was published as article 96 of the book Material Forming

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

[1] B. Seidel, D. Meyer, Influence of artificial aging on the lubricating ability of water miscible metalworking fluids, Prod. Eng. 13 (2019) 425–435.
[2] M.R. Sari, A. Haiahem, L. Flamand, Effect of lubricant contamination on gear wear, Tribol. Lett. 27 (2007) 119-126.
[3] T. Kjer, Wear rate and concentration of wear particles in lubricating oil, Wear 67 (1981) 217.
[4] Q.Y. Jiang, S.N. Wang, Abrasive wear of locomotive diesel engines and contaminant control, Tribol. Trans. 41 (1998) 605-609.
[5] H.H. Abou El Naga, A.E.M. Salem, Effect of worn metals on the oxidation of lubricating oils, Wear 96 (1984) 267-283.
[6] U. Olofsson, Y. Zhu, S. Abbasi, R. Lewis, S. Lewis, Tribology of the wheel-rail contact-aspects of wear, particle emission and adhesion, Vehicle System Dynamics 51 (2013) 1091-1120.
[7] T. Luo, X. Wei, X. Huang, L. Huang, F. Yang, Tribological properties of Al2O3 nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives, Ceram. Int. 40 (2014) 7143-7149.
[8] J. Padgurskas, R. Rukuiza, I. Prosyčevas, R. Kreivaitis, Tribological properties of lubricant additives of Fe, Cu and Co nanoparticles, Tribol. Int. 60 (2013) 224-232.
[9] Y. Li, Y. Chen, P. Gao, B. Zhong, F. Ai, L. Li, Y. Xiao, Research on influence of abrasive particles on lubricating performance of the emulsion for cold rolling strip, in: Proceedings of Chinese Materials Conference 2017, 2017, pp. 135-143.
[10] Ú. Arinbjarnar, M. Moghadam, C.V. Nielsen, Application of Calcium Carbonate as Green Lubricant Additive in Sheet Metal Forming, Key Eng. Mater. 926 (2022) 1133-1142.
[11] D.X. Peng, C.H. Chen, Y. Kang, Y.P. Chang, S.Y. Chang, Size effects of SiO2 nanoparticles as oil additives on tribology of lubricant, Ind. Lubric. Tribol. 62 (2010) 111-120.
[12] Calcit, PolyPlex 2, Calcit d.o.o., Stahovica, Slovenia, Jan. 2014. Available online:
[13] Sibelco, Portaryte® B. Sibelco, Maastricht, Netherlands, Mar. 2013. Available online:
[14] Sibelco, Silverbond M500. Sibelco, Dessel, Belgium, Oct. 01, 2016. Available online:
[15] X. Ji, Y. Chen, G. Zhao, X. Wang, W. Liu, Tribological properties of CaCO3 nanoparticles as an additive in lithium grease, Tribol. Lett. 41 (2011) 113-119.