Experimental study of woven fabrics forming defects

Experimental study of woven fabrics forming defects

SHANWAN Anwar, GHANAMEH Mohamas-Fathi, BIJU Aditya, HIVET Gilles

download PDF

Abstract. The manufacturing of composite materials can be ensured by several industrial processes, like Liquid Composite Molding (LCM). This technology is used to produce composite parts with complex geometries because it provides a very good compromise in terms of repeatability, production rates and cost. During the forming phase of an LCM process, a fabric can be formed by highly double curved punch geometries where it could be submitted to several deformations and mechanical stresses that lead to the appearance of different types of defects: buckles, gapping, in-plane pull-out, etc. In order to understand their phenomenology, different types of defects were generated inside samples of glass and carbon fabrics so as to understand their mechanisms of appearance. This work focuses on the phenomenology of appearance of forming defects and the definition of experimental parameters allowing the generation of calibrated defects, such as buckles and gapping, inside samples of glass and carbon woven fabrics. The definition of these parameters allows the manufacturing of composite parts with calibrated defects, which in turn helps to define the influence of these defects on the mechanical behavior of composites materials.

Mesoscopic Defects, Buckles, Gapping, In-Plane Pull-Out, Woven Fabric

Published online 4/19/2023, 10 pages
Copyright © 2023 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: SHANWAN Anwar, GHANAMEH Mohamas-Fathi, BIJU Aditya, HIVET Gilles, Experimental study of woven fabrics forming defects, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 28, pp 375-384, 2023

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21741/9781644902479-41

The article was published as article 41 of the book Material Forming

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

[1] Y. Li, Y. Xiao, L. Yu, K. Ji, D. Li, A review on the tooling technologies for composites manufacturing of aerospace structures: materials, structures and processes, Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf. 154 (2022) 106762. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106762
[2] S. Konstantopoulos, C. Hueber, I. Antoniadis, J. Summerscales, R. Schledjewski, Liquid composite molding reproducibility in real-world production of fiber reinforced polymeric composites: a review of challenges and solutions, Adv. Manuf. Polym. Compos. Sci. 5 (2019) 85 99. https://doi.org/10.1080/20550340.2019.1635778
[3] P. Boisse, R. Akkerman, P. Carlone, L. Kärger, S.V. Lomov, J.A. Sherwood, Advances in composite forming through 25 years of ESAFORM, Int. J. Mater. Form. 15 (2022) 39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12289-022-01682-8
[4] B. Liang, P. Boisse, A review of numerical analyses and experimental characterization methods for forming of textile reinforcements, Chin. J. Aeronaut. 34 (2021) 143 163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cja.2020.09.027
[5] R. Bai, B. Chen, J. Colmars, P. Boisse, Physics-based evaluation of the drapability of textile composite reinforcements, Compos. Part B Eng. 242 (2022) 110089. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2022.110089
[6] F. Nosrat Nezami, T. Gereke, C. Cherif, Analyses of interaction mechanisms during forming of multilayer carbon woven fabrics for composite applications, Compos. Part Appl. Sci. Manuf. 84 (2016) 406 416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2016.02.023
[7] P. Boisse, J. Huang, E. G-Maldonado, Analysis and Modeling of Wrinkling in Composite Forming, J. Compos. Sci. 5 (2021) 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5030081
[8] R. Azzouz, S. Allaoui, R. Moulart, Composite preforming defects: a review and a classification, Int. J. Mater. Form. 14 (2021) 1259 1278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12289-021-01643-7
[9] A. Shanwan, S. Allaoui, J. Gillibert, G. Hivet, Development of an experimental approach to study preforming mesoscopic defects of woven fabrics, 24th International Conference on Material Forming, Liège, Belgium, Apr. 2021. https://doi.org/10.25518/esaform21.1580
[10] S. Chen, O. P.L. McGregor, L.T. Harper, A. Endruweit, N.A. Warrior, Defect formation during preforming of a bi-axial non-crimp fabric with a pillar stitch pattern, Compos. Part A : Appl. Sci. Manuf. 91 (2016) 156 167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2016.09.016
[11] P. Boisse, N. Hamila, A. Madeo, Modelling the development of defects during composite reinforcements and prepreg forming, Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 374 (2016) 20150269. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2015.0269
[12] A. Shanwan, S. Allaoui, Different experimental ways to minimize the preforming defects of multi-layered interlock dry fabric, Int. J. Mater. Form. 12 (2019) 69 78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12289-018-1407-6
[13] C. Tephany, J. Gillibert, P. Ouagne, G. Hivet, S. Allaoui, D. Soulat, Development of an experimental bench to reproduce the tow buckling defect appearing during the complex shape forming of structural flax based woven composite reinforcements, Compos. Part Appl. Sci. Manuf. 81 (2016) 22 33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.10.011
[14] S. Allaoui, C. Cellard, G. Hivet, Effect of inter-ply sliding on the quality of multilayer interlock dry fabric preforms, Compos. Part Appl. Sci. Manuf. 68 (2015) 336 345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2014.10.017
[15] E. Capelle, P. Ouagne, D. Soulat, D. Duriatti, Complex shape forming of flax woven fabrics: Design of specific blank-holder shapes to prevent defects, Compos. Part B Eng. 62 (2014) 29 36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.02.007
[16] C. Cruanes, A. Shanwan, S. Méo, S. Allaoui, M-P. Deffarges, F. Lacroix, G. Hivet, Effect of mesoscopic out-of-plane defect on the fatigue behavior of a GFRP, Mech. Mater. 117 (2018) 214 224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mechmat.2017.11.008
[17] M.M. Salem, E. De Luycker, K. Delbe, M. Fazzini, P. Ouagne, Experimental investigation of vegetal and synthetic fabrics cohesion in order to prevent the tow sliding defect via frictional and pull-out test, Compos. Part Appl. Sci. Manuf. 139 (2020) 106083. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.106083
[18] A.R. Labanieh, C. Garnier, P. Ouagne, O. Dalverny, D. Soulat, Intra-ply yarn sliding defect in hemisphere preforming of a woven preform, Compos. Part Appl. Sci. Manuf. 107 (2018) 432 446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.01.018
[19] A. Shanwan, S. Allaoui, J. Gillibert, G. Hivet, Development and Implementation of an Experimental Machine to Study Woven Fabric Preforming Defects, Exp. Tech. 46 (2022) 299 316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40799-021-00483-z