Digital twin development for the sensitivity analysis of near solidus forming process
MUHAMMAD Sajjad, GORKA Plata, JOKIN Lozares, JOSEBA Mendigurendownload PDF
Abstract. Near Solidus Forming (NSF) process, performed at semi-solid material state is gaining popularity due to its good physical properties, low manufacturing cost and material waste. Although the process possesses many advantages over traditional hot forging, the nature of the process itself is very complex and due to this the researcher struggles to identify the material behavior at NSF conditions. Especially the material model in this condition has not been stated clearly before and therefore it is important to develop a reliable digital twin (DT) strategy which can validate the material model efficiently. Therefore, the objective of this work is to investigate the influence of all DT parameters like billet material and dimensions, billet and dies temperature, heat transfer coefficient, emissivity, ambient temperature, and friction coefficient, in two industrial components such as H spindle and R spindle. The Taguchi Design of Experiments (DOE) approach combined with numerical simulation in FORGE NxT® is employed to develop the sensitivity analysis of the process. The impact of all parameters in the DT are evaluated in terms of die filling and forming forces, and its importance in the material model is studied. Results show that the newly developed approach proposed a novel optimum NSF-DT calibration strategy for material-model validation. Which can be used to develop an accurate model of the NSF process at the laboratory and industrial scale
NSF (Near Solidus Forming), Digital Twin (DT), FORGE NxT®, Design of Experiments (DOE)
Published online 4/19/2023, 10 pages
Copyright © 2023 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA
Citation: MUHAMMAD Sajjad, GORKA Plata, JOKIN Lozares, JOSEBA Mendiguren, Digital twin development for the sensitivity analysis of near solidus forming process, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 28, pp 1521-1530, 2023
The article was published as article 164 of the book Material Forming
Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
 G. Plata, J. Lozares, A Sánchez, I. Hurtado, C. Slater, Preliminary study on the capability of the novel near solidus forming (NSF) technology to manufacture complex steel components, Materials 13 (2020) 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13204682
 J. Lozares, G. Plata, I. Hurtado, A Sánchez, I. Loizaga, Near solidus forming (NSF): Semi-solid steel forming at high solid content to obtain as-forged properties, Metals 10 (2020). https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020198
 J. Rakhmonov, M. Qassem, D. Larouche, K. Liu, M. Javidani, J. Colbert, X.-G. Chen, A New Approach to Determine Tensile Stress-Strain Evolution in Semi-Solid State at Near-Solidus Temperature of Aluminum Alloys, Metals 11 (2021) 396. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11030396
 D.H. Kirkwood, Semisolid metal processing, 1994.
 K.P. Young, R.G. Riek, M.C. Flemings, Structure and properties of Thixocast steels, Metal. Technol. 6 (1979) 130-137. https://doi.org/10.1179/030716979803276552
 P. Kapranos, Semi-Solid Metal Processing. Thixoforming, Explorer, Hayward, 2001.
 P. Kapranos, D.H. Kirkwood, C.M. Sellars, Semi-solid processing of tool steel, Le Journal de Physique IV 03 (1993) C7-835-C7-840. https://doi.org/10.1051/jp4:19937131
 P. Cezard, T. Sourmail, Thixoforming of Steel: A State of the Art from an Industrial Point of View, Solid State Phenom. 141-143 (2008) 25-35. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.141-143.25
 G. Hirt, W. Bleck, A. Bührig-Polaczek, H. Shimahara, W. Puttgen, C. Afrath, Semi Solid Casting and Forging of Steel, Solid State Phenom. 116-117 (2006) 34-43. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.116-117.34
 C.M. Gourlay, A.K. Dahle, Dilatant shear bands in solidifying metals, Nature 445 (2007) 70-73. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05426
 K. Traidi, V. Favier, P. Lestriez, et al, Thermomechanical steels behaviors at semi-solid state, in: AIP Conference Proceedings. American Institute of Physics Inc., 2016.
 L. Deng, X.T. Li, J.S. Jin, X.Y. Wang, J.J. Li, T-shape upsetting-extruding test for evaluating friction conditions during rib-web part forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 214 (2014) 2276-2283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.04.021
 Q. Zhang, E. Felder, S. Bruschi, Evaluation of friction condition in cold forging by using T-shape compression test, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209 (2009) 5720-5729. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2009.06.002
 Q. Zhang, M. Arentoft, S. Bruschi, l. Dubar, E. Felder, Measurement of friction in a cold extrusion operation: Study by numerical simulation of four friction tests, Int. J. Mater. Form. 1 (2008) 1267-1270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12289-008-0133-x
 W.M. Dale, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Relat. Stud. Phys. Chem. Med. 6 (1963) 610-610. https://doi.org/10.1080/09553006314550741
 P.R. Burte, Y.-T. Im, T. Altan, S.L. Semiatin, Measurement and Analysis of Heat Transfer and Friction During Hot Forging, 1990.
A. Azushima, K. Uda, H. Matsuda, Thermal behavior of aluminum-coated 22MnB5 in hot stamping under dry and lubricated conditions, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 214 (2014) 3031-3036. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.07.003
 C.C. Chang, A.N. Bramley, Determination of the heat transfer coeecient at the workpiece — die interface for the forging process, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B: J. Eng. Manuf. B 216 (2002) 1179-1186. https://doi.org/10.1243/095440502760272449
 Chang Y, Li S, Li X, et al Effect of contact pressure on IHTC and the formability of hot-formed 22MnB5 automotive parts. Appl Therm Eng 99 (2016) 419-428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.01.053
 Q. Bai, J. Lin, L. Zhan, T.A. Dean, D.S. Balint, Z. Zhang, An efficient closed-form method for determining interfacial heat transfer coefficient in metal forming, Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manuf. 56 (2012) 102-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2011.12.005
 Ł. Rogal, J. Dutkiewicz, H.V. Atkinson, L. Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, T. Czeppe, M. Modigell, Characterization of semi-solid processing of aluminium alloy 7075 with Sc and Zr additions, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 580 (2013) 362-373. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2013.04.078
 P. Hartley, I. Pillinger, Numerical simulation of the forging process, Comput, Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng. 195 (2006) 6676-6690. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2005.03.013
 S.B. Petersen, P.A.F. Martins, N. Bay, An alternative ring-test geometry for the evaluation of friction under low normal pressure, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 79 (1998) 14-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(97)00448-2
 H.V. Atkinson, Modelling the semisolid processing of metallic alloys, Prog. Mater. Sci. 50 (2005) 341-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2004.04.003