Introduction to Nanomaterials


Introduction to Nanomaterials

N.B. Singh

In the last few years, nanoscience and nanotechnology have become a very important branch of science and technology. 10-9 stands for nano and particles size less than 100 nm are said to be nanomaterial. Nanoscience connects chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, engineering sciences and others. Nanomaterials are synthesized in a number of ways, but the conventional methods are costly, time consuming and pollute the environment. However, green routes are becoming popular. Synthesized nanomaterials are characterized by using a number of techniques and they are useful in different sectors. A general introduction in brief is given in this chapter.

Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology, Green Method, Characterization, Applications

Published online 2/1/2023, 13 pages

Citation: N.B. Singh, Introduction to Nanomaterials, Materials Research Foundations, Vol. 141, pp 1-13, 2023


Part of the book on Emerging Applications of Nanomaterials

[1] H. Gleiter, Nanostructured materials: basic concepts and microstructure Acta Mater., 48 (2000)1-29
[2] R. P. Feynman, There’s plenty of room at the bottom, Eng. Sci. 23 (1960) 22-36.
[3] H. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O’Brien, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, C60: Buckminsterfullerene. Nature, 318 (1985) 162-163.
[4] S. Iijima, Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature, 354(1991) 56-58.
[5] S.A. Mazari, E.Ali , R. Abro, F.S. Khan, I. Ahmed, M. Ahmed, S. Nizamuddin, T.H. Siddiqui, N. Hossain, N. M. Mubarak, A. Shah, Nanomaterials: Applications, waste-handling, environmental toxicities, and future challenges-A Review. J. Environ. Chem. Engg., 9(1021)105028
[6] T. A. Saleh, Nanomaterials: Classification, properties, and environmental toxicities, Environmental Technology & Innovation, 20 (2020) 101067
[7] Khorshidi Mahsa, Asadpour Saeid, Sarmast Narges, Dinari Mohammad. A review of the synthesis methods, properties, and applications of layered double hydroxides/carbon nanocomposites. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 348(2022) 118399.
[8] I. Hussain, N.B. Singh, A. Singh, H. Singh, S.C. Singh, Green synthesis of nanoparticles and its potential application, Biotechnol. Lett., 38 (2016) 545-560.
[9] N. Baig, I. Kammakakam, W. Falath, I. Kammakakam, Nanomaterials: A review of synthesis methods, properties, recent progress, and challenges, Materials, Advances 2 (2021) 1821-1871.
[10] M. Huston, M. DeBella, M. DiBella, A. Gupta, Green synthesis of nanomaterials, Nanomaterials, 11 (8) (2021) 2130.
[11] V. Mody, R. Siwale, A. Singh, H. Mody, Introduction to metallic nanoparticles, Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 2 (2010) 282.
[12] A.A. Yaqoob, K. Umar, M.N.M. Ibrahim, Silver nanoparticles: various methods of synthesis, size affecting factors and their potential applications-a review, Applied Nanoscience (Switzerland), 10 (2020) 1369-1378.
[13] D. Lima, A. Ribicki, L. Gonçalves, A.C.M. Hacke, L.C. Lopes, R.P. Pereira, K. Wohnrath, S.T. Fujiwara, C.A. Pessôa, Nanoconjugates based on a novel organicinorganic hybrid silsesquioxane and gold nanoparticles as hemocompatible nanomaterials for promising biosensing applications, Colloids Surf., B, 213 (2022).
[14] L. Jeong, W.H. Park, Preparation and characterization of gelatin nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 15 (2014) 6857-6879.
[15] R. Eluri, B. Paul, Synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by hydrazine reduction: Mechanistic study and continuous flow synthesis, J. Nanopart. Res., 14 (2012)800.
[16] Q. Wu, W.S. Miao, Y. du Zhang, H.J. Gao, D. Hui, Mechanical properties of nanomaterials: A review, Nanotechnology Reviews, 9 (2020) 259-273.
[17] J. Yang, J.Y. Lee, T.C. Deivaraj, H.P. Too, A highly efficient phase transfer method for preparing alkylamine- stabilized Ru, Pt, and Au nanoparticles, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 277 (2004) 95-99.
[18] Nasrollahzadeh Mahmoud, Atarod Monireh, Sajjadi Mohaddeseh, Sajadi S Mohammad, Issaabadi Zahra, Chapter 6 – Plant-Mediated Green Synthesis of Nanostructures: Mechanisms, Characterization, and Applications. Interface Science and Technology,28 (2019) 199-322.
[19] De A, Kumari A, Jain P, Manna AK, Bhattacharjee G (2020) Plasmonic sensing of Hg (II), Cr (III), and Pb (II) ions from aqueous solution by biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles. Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry, 1-12.
[20] Vijayaraghavan K, Ashokkumar T (2017) Plant-mediated biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles: a review of literature, factors affecting synthesis, characterization techniques and applications. Journal of environmental chemical engineering, 5(5): 4866-4883.
[21] Khodadadi B, Maryam B, Mahmoud N (2017) Green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles at Apricot kernel shell substrate using Salvia hydrangea extract: catalytic activity for reduction of organic dyes. J colloid interf sci 490: 1-10.
[22] Amooaghaie R, Saeri, MR, Azizi M (2015) Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Nigella sativa leaf extract in comparison with chemical silver nanoparticles. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 120: 400-408.
[23] Anand K, Gengan RM, Phulukdaree A, Chuturgoon A (2015) Agroforestry waste Moringa oleifera petals mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their anti-cancer and catalytic activity. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 21:1105-1111.
[24] Rajiv P, Sivaraj R, Rajendran V (2013) Bio-Fabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. and its size-dependent antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens.” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 112 : 384-387.
[25] Padalia H, Moteriya P, Chanda S (2015) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from marigold flower and its synergistic antimicrobial potential. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 8(5):732-741.
[26] K. Radad, M. Al-Shraim, R. Moldzio, and W. D. Rausch, “Recent advances in benefits and hazards of engineered nanoparticles,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 661-672, 2012.
[27] A. Roy and N. Bharadvaja, “Qualitative analysis of phytocompounds and synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Centella asiatica,” Innovative Techniques in Agriculture, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 88-95, 2017.
[28] P. Nagore, S. Ghotekar, K. Mane, A. Ghoti, M. Bilal, and A. Roy, “Structural properties and antimicrobial activities of Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract-mediated CuO nanoparticles,” BioNanoScience, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 579-589, 2021.
[29] B. Dréno, A. Alexis, B. Chuberre, M. Marinovich, Safety of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in cosmetics, J. Eur. Acad. Dermatology Venereol. 33 (2019) 34-46.
[30] S. Arango-Santander, A. Pelaez-Vargas, S.C. Freitas, C. García, A novel approach to create an antibacterial surface using titanium dioxide and a combination of dip-pen nanolithography and soft lithography, Sci. Rep. 8 (2018) 15818.
[31] T. Bruna, F. Maldonado-Bravo, P. Jara, N. Caro, Silver Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Applications, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22 (2021) 7202.
[32] T. Maruyama, Carbon nanotubes, in: S. Thomas, C. Sarathchandran, S.A. Ilangovan, J.C.B.T.-H. of C.-B.N. Moreno-Piraján (Eds.), Micro Nano Technol., Elsevier, 2021: pp. 299-319.
[33] N. Gupta, A. Dixit, Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors (CNFETs): Structure, Fabrication, Modeling, and Performance, in: A. Hazra, R. Goswami (Eds.), Carbon Nanomater. Electron. Devices Appl., Springer Singapore, Singapore, 2021: pp. 199-214.
[34] M. Ćibo, A. Šator, A. Kazlagić, E. Omanović-Mikličanin, Application and Impact of Nanotechnology in Sport, in: M. Brka, E. Omanović-Mikličanin, L. Karić, V. Falan, A. Toroman (Eds.), 30th Sci. Conf. Agric. Food Ind., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2020: pp. 349-362.
[35] A.K. Yetisen, H. Qu, A. Manbachi, H. Butt, M.R. Dokmeci, J.P. Hinestroza, M. Skorobogatiy, A. Khademhosseini, S.H. Yun, Nanotechnology in Textiles, ACS Nano. 10 (2016) 3042-3068.
[36] V. Amenta, K. Aschberger, M. Arena et al., “Regulatory aspects of nanotechnology in the agri/feed/food sector in EU and non-EU countries,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 463-476, 2015.
[37] N. Prajitha, S. S. Athira, and P. V. Mohanan, “Bio-interactions and risks of engineered nanoparticles,” Environmental Research, vol. 172, pp. 98-108, 2019.
[38] Hiwa M. Ahmed, Arpita Roy,2Muhammad Wahab, Mohammed Ahmed, Gashaw Othman-Qadir,Basem H. Elesawy, Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, Mohammad Nazmul Islam,and Talha Bin Emran, Applications of Nanomaterials in Agrifood and Pharmaceutical Industry, Journal of Nanomaterials Volume 2021, Article ID 1472096, 10 pages.