Utilisation of Sustainable Materials in Geopolymer Composites– A Review
Preetha Vellaichamy, Vishalachi Chakkaravarthi, Senthilkumar Veerasamy, V.M. Gnanasundardownload PDF
Abstract. Geopolymer composites made from sustainable ingredients which are used to make ecofriendly concrete in the infrastructure sector. The dramatic increase in infrastructure growth around the world demonstrates the daily demand for cement production. This study provides an overall view of research on the use of materials and the performance of geopolymer matrix based on strength and durability. Unlike cement, the reutilization of industrial by-products reduces greenhouse gas emissions during manufacture. Hence geopolymers can contribute to a better alternative to Portland cement. Natural raw materials, agricultural waste, and industrial waste by products from diverse industries are used as composite filler / binder materials in geopolymer matrix to improve workability , durability and reducing geopolymer concrete manufacturing costs. With the help of various curing procedures, the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete can be increased in a short amount of time. It has also been discovered that adding fibres to geopolymer concrete improves tensile strength, lowering the cost of structural maintenance.
Binder Materials, Matrix, Geopolymer, Concrete, Strength
Published online , 14 pages
Copyright © 2022 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA
Citation: Preetha Vellaichamy, Vishalachi Chakkaravarthi, Senthilkumar Veerasamy, V.M. Gnanasundar, Utilisation of Sustainable Materials in Geopolymer Composites– A Review, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 23, pp 348-361, 2022
The article was published as article 40 of the book Sustainable Materials and Smart Practices
Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
 Davidovits, Joseph., Geopolymer Chemistry and Applications, 5-Th Edition (2020).
 Zhuang, Xiao Yu, Liang Chen, Sridhar Komarneni, Chun Hui Zhou, Dong Shen Tong, Hui Min Yang, Wei Hua Yu, and Hao Wang, Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer: Clean Production, Properties and Applications, Journal of Cleaner Production 125:253-67 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.03.019
 Shamsaei, Ezzatollah, Owen Bolt, Felipe Basquiroto de Souza, Emad Benhelal, Kwesi Sagoe-Crentsil, and Jay Sanjayan., Pathways to Commercialisation for Brown Coal Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete in Australia, Sustainability (Switzerland) 13(8) (2021). https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084350
 Duxson, P., A. Fernández-Jiménez, J. L. Provis, G. C. Lukey, A. Palomo, and J. S. J. Van Deventer, Geopolymer Technology: The Current State of the Art, Journal of Materials Science 42(9):2917-33 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-0637-z
 Xu, Hua and J. S. J. Van Deventer, The Geopolymerisation of Alumino-Silicate Minerals, (2000). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-7516(99)00074-5
 Palomo, A., A. Fernández-Jiménez, G. Kovalchuk, L. M. Ordoñez, and M. C. Naranjo, Opc-Fly Ash Cementitious Systems: Study of Gel Binders Produced during Alkaline Hydration, Journal of Materials Science 42(9):2958-66 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-0585-7
 Xu, Hua and Jannie S. J. Van Deventer, Effect of Source Materials on Geopolymerization, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 42(8):1698-1706 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1021/ie0206958
 Görür, E. B., O. Karahan, C. Bilim, S. Ilkentapar, and E. Luga. 2015, Very High Strength ( 120 MPa ) Class F Fly Ash Geopolymer Mortar Activated at Different NaOH Amount , Heat Curing Temperature and Heat Curing Duration, 96:673-78 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.08.089
 Ling, Yifeng and Ashley Buss, Proportion and Performance Evaluation of Fly Ash- Based Geopolymer and Its Application in Engineered Composites, Iowa State University Captones, Theses and Dissertations 140 (2018).
 Panagiotopoulou, Ch, E. Kontori, Th Perraki, and G. Kakali, Dissolution of Aluminosilicate Minerals and By-Products in Alkaline Media, Journal of Materials Science 42(9):2967-73 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-0531-8
 Bhardwaj, Bavita and Pardeep Kumar, Comparative Study of Geopolymer and Alkali Activated Slag Concrete Comprising Waste Foundry Sand, Construction and Building Materials 209:555-65 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.03.107
 Ali, Isam Mohamad, Ahmed Samir Naje, and Mohammed Salah Nasr, Eco-Friendly Chopped Tire Rubber as Reinforcements in Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete, Global Nest Journal 22(3):342-47 (2020).
 Republic, Czech and Czech Republic, Microstructure Of Geopolymer Materials Based On Fly Ash, 50(4):208-15 (2006).
 Hawa, Abideng, Danupon Tonnayopas, and Woraphot Prachasaree, Performance Evaluation and Microstructure Characterization of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer Containing Oil Palm Ash, The Scientific World Journal (2013). https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/857586
 Chen Xu, Andre Sutrisno and Leslie J. Struble, Effects of Calcium on Setting Mechanism of Metakaolin -based Geopolymer, Orcid ID : 0000-0002-6813-2849, 0-2.
 Shi, Jinyan, Baoju Liu, Yuanchun Liu, Enliang Wang, Zhihai He, Huijie Xu, and Xiaodong Ren, Preparation and Characterization of Lightweight Aggregate Foamed Geopolymer Concretes Aerated Using Hydrogen Peroxide, Construction and Building Materials 256:119442 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119442
 Oyebisi, Solomon, Anthony Ede, Festus Olutoge, and David Omole, Geopolymer Concrete Incorporating Agro-Industrial Wastes: Effects on Mechanical Properties, Microstructural Behaviour and Mineralogical Phases, Construction and Building Materials 256:119390 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119390
 Panizza, Matteo, Marco Natali, Enrico Garbin, Vilma Ducman, and Sergio Tamburini, Optimization and Mechanical-Physical Characterization of Geopolymers with Construction and Demolition Waste ( CDW ) Aggregates for Construction Products, Construction and Building Materials 264:120158 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.120158
 Shin, S., G. Goh, and C. Lee., Predictions of Compressive Strength of GPC Blended with GGBFS Developed at Varying Temperatures, Construction and Building Materials 206:1-9 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.01.181
 Thokchom, Suresh, Kalyan Kr Mandal, and Somnath Ghosh., Effect of Si/Al Ratio on Performance of Fly Ash Geopolymers at Elevated Temperature, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 37(4):977-89 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-012-0230-5
 Rajarajeswari, A. and G. Dhinakaran., Compressive Strength of GGBFS Based GPC under Thermal Curing, Construction and Building Materials 126:552-59 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.09.076
 Turner, Louise K. and Frank G. Collins., Carbon Dioxide Equivalent ( CO2 -e ) Emissions : A Comparison between Geopolymer and OPC Cement Concrete, Construction and Building Materials 43:125-30 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.01.023
 Wang, Yan Shuai, Yazan Alrefaei, and Jian Guo Dai., Silico-Aluminophosphate and Alkali-Aluminosilicate Geopolymers: A Comparative Review, Frontiers in Materials 6(May 2019):1-17.
 Liew, K. M., A. O. Sojobi, and L. W. Zhang.,Green Concrete: Prospects and Challenges, Construction and Building Materials 156:1063-95 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.09.008
 Jindal, Bharat Bhushan and Rahul Sharma., The Effect of Nanomaterials on Properties of Geopolymers Derived from Industrial By-Products: A State-of-the-Art Review, Construction and Building Materials 252:119028 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119028
 Rashad, Alaa M., Effect of Nanoparticles on the Properties of Geopolymer Materials, Magazine of Concrete Research 71(24):1283-1301 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1680/jmacr.18.00289
 Vyas, Sameer, Sameer Mohammad, Shilpa Pal, and Neetu Singh., Strength and Durability Performance of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete Using Nano Silica, International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies 4(2):1-12 (2020). https://doi.org/10.29121/ijoest.v4.i2.2020.73
 Alomayri, Thamer., Experimental Study of the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Geopolymer Paste with Nano Material (Al2O3), Journal of Building Engineering 25(February 2019):100788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2019.100788
 Duan, Ping, Chunjie Yan, Wenjun Luo, and Wei Zhou., Effects of Adding Nano-TiO2 on Compressive Strength, Drying Shrinkage, Carbonation and Microstructure of Fluidized Bed Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Paste, Construction and Building Materials 106:115-25 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.12.095
 Rekha, KP and R. Hazeena., Strength and Durability of Fibre Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 5(7):412-16 (2014).
 Saranya, P., Praveen Nagarajan, and Aikot Pallikkara Shashikala., Performance Studies on Steel Fiber-Reinforced GGBS-Dolomite Geopolymer Concrete, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 33(2):04020447 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0003530
 Meng, Qingfei, Chengqing Wu, Hong Hao, Jun Li, Pengtao Wu, Yekai Yang, and Zhongqi Wang, Steel Fibre Reinforced Alkali-Activated Geopolymer Concrete Slabs Subjected to Natural Gas Explosion in Buried Utility Tunnel, Construction and Building Materials 246:118447 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118447
 Ganesan, N., Ruby Abraham, and S. Deepa Raj., Durability Characteristics of Steel Fibre Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete, Construction and Building Materials 93:471-76 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.06.014
 Taveri, Gianmarco, Enrico Bernardo, and Ivo Dlouhy., Mechanical Performance of Glass-Based Geopolymer Matrix Composites Reinforced with Cellulose Fibers, Materials 11(12) (2018).
 Chithambar Ganesh, A., M. Muthukannan, M. Dhivya, C. B. Sangeetha, and S. P. Daffodile., Structural Performance of Hybrid Fiber Geopolymer Concrete Beams, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 872(1) (2020). https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/872/1/012155
 Selvi, D. Kalai Arul, M. Mariyappan, and P. Sowmiya Devi., Performance of Geopolymer Concrete Using Polypropylene Fiber, (May 2020):3572-79.
 Bahador, Amir, Alireza Esparham, and Mohammad Jamshidi., Physical & Mechanical Properties of Fiber Reinforced Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer Concrete, Construction and Building Materials 251:118965(2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118965
 Laskar, Sulaem Musaddiq and Sudip Talukdar., Preparation and Tests for Workability, Compressive and Bond Strength of Ultra-Fine Slag Based Geopolymer as Concrete Repairing Agent, Construction and Building Materials 154(November 2017):176-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.07.187
 Deb, Partha Sarathi, Pradip Nath, and Prabir Kumar Sarker., Drying Shrinkage of Slag Blended Fly Ash Geopolymer Concrete Cured at Room Temperature, Procedia Engineering 125:594-600 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.11.066
 Lee, Wei Hao, Jhi Hao Wang, Yung Chin Ding, and Ta Wui Cheng., A Study on the Characteristics and Microstructures of GGBS/FA Based Geopolymer Paste and Concrete, Construction and Building Materials 211:807-13 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.03.291
 Hassan, Amer, Mohammed Arif, and M. Shariq., A Review of Properties and Behaviour of Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete Structural Elements- A Clean Technology Option for Sustainable Development, Journal of Cleaner Production 245(October 2020):118762. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118762
 Arbi, Kamel, Marija Nedeljković, Yibing Zuo, and Guang Ye., A Review on the Durability of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash/Slag Systems: Advances, Issues, and Perspectives, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 55(19):5439-53 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.6b00559
 Mahmood, Aziz Hasan., Development of a High-Density Geopolymer Concrete for Coastal Protection Applications, (September 2019).
 Fan, Fenghong, Zhen Liu, Guoji Xu, Hui Peng, and C. S. Cai., Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Fly Ash Based Geopolymers, Construction and Building Materials 160:66-81(2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.11.023