Carbon-Based Nanomaterial Embedded Self-Sensing Cement Composite for Structural Health Monitoring of Concrete Beams – A Extensive Review

Carbon-Based Nanomaterial Embedded Self-Sensing Cement Composite for Structural Health Monitoring of Concrete Beams – A Extensive Review

A. Dinesh, S. Durgadevi, S. Veeraraghavan, S. Janani Praveena

download PDF

Abstract. Structural health monitoring has proven to be a dependable source for ensuring the integrity of the structure. It also aids in detecting and estimating the progression of cracks and the loss of structural performance. The most compelling components in the structural health monitoring system are sensing material and sensor technology. In health monitoring systems, fiber optic sensors, strain gauges, temperature sensors, shape memory alloys, and other types of sensors are commonly used. Even though the sensors bring monetary value to the system, they have some apparent drawbacks. As a result, self-sensing cement composite was established as a sensor alternative with better endurance and compatibility than sensors. Carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, graphene nanoplates, and graphene oxide are carbon-based nanomaterials with unique mechanical and electrical properties. As a result, this review comprises a complete assessment of the fresh, mechanical, and electrical properties of self-sensing cement composite developed using carbon-based nanoparticles. The research also focuses on the self-monitoring performance of cement composite in concrete beams, both bulk and embedded, by graphing the deviation of fractional change in resistivity with strain. The network channel development of carbon-based nanomaterials in cement composites and their characterization acquired using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-Ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) research are also comprehensively discussed. According to the study, increasing carbon-based embedment decreased the relative slump and flowability while increasing the composite’s compressive, split tensile, flexural, and post-peak performance. Also, the amount of carbon in the carbon-based nanomaterial directly relates to the composite’s conductivity. As a result, the development of piezoresistive and sensing capabilities in carbon-based self-sensing cement composites not only improves mechanical and conductive properties but also serves as a sensor in structural health monitoring of flexural members.

Structural Health Monitoring, Self-Sensing Cement Composites, Carbon-Based Nanomaterials, Strength, Conductivity, Beams

Published online , 14 pages
Copyright © 2022 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: A. Dinesh, S. Durgadevi, S. Veeraraghavan, S. Janani Praveena, Carbon-Based Nanomaterial Embedded Self-Sensing Cement Composite for Structural Health Monitoring of Concrete Beams – A Extensive Review, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 23, pp 217-230, 2022


The article was published as article 25 of the book Sustainable Materials and Smart Practices

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

[1] R. Capozucca, Damage to reinforced concrete due to reinforcement corrosion, Constr. Build. Mater. 9 (1995) 295–303.
[2] P.C. Chang, A. Flatau, S.C. Liu, Review paper: Health monitoring of civil infrastructure, Struct. Heal. Monit. 2 (2003) 257–267.
[3] J.M.W. Brownjohn, Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 365 (2007) 589–622.
[4] V. Agarwal, A. Shelke, B.S. Ahluwalia, F. Melandsø, T. Kundu, A. Habib, Damage localization in piezo-ceramic using ultrasonic waves excited by dual point contact excitation and detection scheme, Ultrasonics. 108 (2020) 106113.
[5] R.B. Randall, W.A. Smith, Detection of faulty accelerometer mounting from response measurements, J. Sound Vib. 477 (2020) 115318.
[6] Z. Pei, X. Cheng, X. Yang, Q. Li, C. Xia, D. Zhang, X. Li, Understanding environmental impacts on initial atmospheric corrosion based on corrosion monitoring sensors, J. Mater. Sci. Technol. (2020) 1–8.
[7] J. Chakraborty, A. Katunin, Detection of structural changes in concrete using embedded ultrasonic sensors based on autoregressive model, Diagnostyka. 20 (2019) 103–110.
[8] A. Barrias, J.R. Casas, S. Villalba, Fatigue performance of distributed optical fiber sensors in reinforced concrete elements, Constr. Build. Mater. 218 (2019) 214–223.
[9] F. Guan, X. Zhai, J. Duan, M. Zhang, B. Hou, Influence of sulfate-reducing bacteria on the corrosion behavior of high strength steel eq70 under cathodic polarization, PLoS One. 11 (2016) 1–22.
[10] S.Z. Chen, G. Wu, D.C. Feng, Damage detection of highway bridges based on long-gauge strain response under stochastic traffic flow, Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 127 (2019) 551–572.
[11] Z. Herrasti, I. Gabilondo, J. Berganzo, I. Val, F. Martínez, Wireless Sensor Nodes for Acceleration, Strain and Temperature Measurements, Procedia Eng. 168 (2016) 1659–1662.
[12] A. Dinesh, S.T. Sudharsan, S. Haribala, Self-sensing cement-based sensor with carbon nanotube: Fabrication and properties – A review, Mater. Today Proc. (2021).
[13] A. Dinesh, B. Abirami, G. Moulica, Materials Today : Proceedings Carbon nanofiber embedded cement composites : Properties and promises as sensor – A review, Mater. Today Proc. (2020).
[14] B. Han, S. Ding, X. Yu, Intrinsic self-sensing concrete and structures: A review, Meas. J. Int. Meas. Confed. 59 (2015) 110–128.
[15] P. Eswaramoorthi, P. Magudeaswaran, A. Dinesh, PUSHOVER ANALYSIS OF STEEL FRAME, n.d.
[16] A. Professor, Analytical study on the behaviour of cold formed steel double channel beam sections, n.d.
[17] A. Dinesh, R. Prasanth Kumar, S.R. Abijith, Experimental investigation on bubble deck concrete using plastic waste, 2020.
[18] J.M. Rius, A. Cladera, C. Ribas, B. Mas, Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using shape memory alloys, Constr. Build. Mater. 200 (2019) 420–435.
[19] A. Professor, Study on Strength properties of High performance concrete, n.d.
[20] A.S. S.D., D. A., S.B. V., Investigation of waste marble powder in the development of sustainable concrete, Mater. Today Proc. (2020).
[21] M. Sutcu, H. Alptekin, E. Erdogmus, Y. Er, O. Gencel, Characteristics of fired clay bricks with waste marble powder addition as building materials, Constr. Build. Mater. 82 (2015) 1–8.
[23] K. Sathish Raja, Dinesh. A, Study on Self Compacting Concrete – A Review, Int. J. Eng. Res. V5 (2016).
[24] A. Professor, Stabilization of soil by using solid waste-A Review, © 2017 IJEDR |. 5 (2017).
[25] A. Dinesh, S. Indhumathi, Moorthi Pichumani, Performance assessemnt of copper slag and sawdust ash in stabilization of black cotton soil, 2021.
[26] A. Dinesh, S. Harini, J.P. Jasmine, J. Jincy, J. Shagufta, International journal of engineering sciences & research technology experimental study of blast furnace slag concrete, Int. J. Eng. Sci. Res. Technol. 6 (2017) 42–50.
[27] A. Dehghani, F. Aslani, The effect of shape memory alloy, steel, and carbon fibres on fresh, mechanical, and electrical properties of self-compacting cementitious composites, Cem. Concr. Compos. 112 (2020) 103659.
[28] X. Xi, D.D.L. Chung, Piezoelectret-based and piezoresistivity-based stress self-sensing in steel beams under flexure, Sensors Actuators, A Phys. 301 (2020) 111780.
[29] R.K. Biswas, F. Bin Ahmed, M.E. Haque, A.A. Provasha, Z. Hasan, F. Hayat, D. Sen, Effects of Steel Fiber Percentage and Aspect Ratios on Fresh and Harden Properties of Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Appl. Mech. 2 (2021) 501–515.
[30] I. Papanikolaou, C. Litina, A. Zomorodian, A. Al-Tabbaa, Effect of natural graphite fineness on the performance and electrical conductivity of cement paste mixes for self-sensing structures, Materials (Basel). 13 (2020) 1–19.
[31] B.G. Han, B.Z. Han, J.P. Ou, Experimental study on use of nickel powder-filled Portland cement-based composite for fabrication of piezoresistive sensors with high sensitivity, Sensors Actuators, A Phys. 149 (2009) 51–55.
[32] E. Teomete, O.I. Kocyigit, Tensile strain sensitivity of steel fiber reinforced cement matrix composites tested by split tensile test, Constr. Build. Mater. 47 (2013) 962–968.
[33] A.O.S. Solgaard, M. Geiker, C. Edvardsen, A. Küter, Observations on the electrical resistivity of steel fibre reinforced concrete, Mater. Struct. Constr. 47 (2014) 335–350.
[34] I.L. Larsen, R.T. Thorstensen, The influence of steel fibres on compressive and tensile strength of ultra high performance concrete: A review, Constr. Build. Mater. 256 (2020) 119459.
[35] J. Song, D.L. Nguyen, C. Manathamsombat, D.J. Kim, Effect of fiber volume content on electromechanical behavior of strain-hardening steel-fiber-reinforced cementitious composites, J. Compos. Mater. 49 (2015) 3621–3634.
[36] B. Han, L. Zhang, S. Sun, X. Yu, X. Dong, T. Wu, J. Ou, Electrostatic self-assembled carbon nanotube/nano carbon black composite fillers reinforced cement-based materials with multifunctionality, Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 79 (2015) 103–115.
[37] A.L. Pisello, A. D’Alessandro, S. Sambuco, M. Rallini, F. Ubertini, F. Asdrubali, A.L. Materazzi, F. Cotana, Multipurpose experimental characterization of smart nanocomposite cement-based materials for thermal-energy efficiency and strain-sensing capability, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 161 (2017) 77–88.
[38] X. Fan, D. Fang, M. Sun, Z. Li, Piezoresistivity of carbon fiber graphite cement-based composites with CCCW, J. Wuhan Univ. Technol. Mater. Sci. Ed. 26 (2011) 339–343.
[39] F. Azhari, N. Banthia, Cement-based sensors with carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes for piezoresistive sensing, Cem. Concr. Compos. 34 (2012) 866–873.
[40] H. Xiao, H. Li, J. Ou, Strain sensing properties of cement-based sensors embedded at various stress zones in a bending concrete beam, Sensors Actuators, A Phys. 167 (2011) 581–587.
[41] F.J. Baeza, O. Galao, E. Zornoza, P. Garcés, Effect of aspect ratio on strain sensing capacity of carbon fiber reinforced cement composites, Mater. Des. 51 (2013) 1085–1094.
[42] A. Al-Dahawi, G. Yıldırım, O. Öztürk, M. Şahmaran, Assessment of self-sensing capability of Engineered Cementitious Composites within the elastic and plastic ranges of cyclic flexural loading, Constr. Build. Mater. 145 (2017) 1–10.
[43] J. Ou, B. Han, Piezoresistive cement-based strain sensors and self-sensing concrete components, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 20 (2009) 329–336.
[44] G. Yıldırım, M.H. Sarwary, A. Al-Dahawi, O. Öztürk, Ö. Anıl, M. Şahmaran, Piezoresistive behavior of CF- and CNT-based reinforced concrete beams subjected to static flexural loading: Shear failure investigation, Constr. Build. Mater. 168 (2018) 266–279.
[45] A. Yazdanbakhsh, Z. Grasley, B. Tyson, R.K. Abu Al-Rub, Distribution of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes in cementitious composites, Transp. Res. Rec. (2010) 89–95.
[46] H. Siad, M. Lachemi, M. Sahmaran, H.A. Mesbah, K.A. Hossain, Advanced engineered cementitious composites with combined self-sensing and self-healing functionalities, Constr. Build. Mater. 176 (2018) 313–322.