Glass and Natural Fiber Composite: Properties and Applications


Glass and Natural Fiber Composite: Properties and Applications

Guravtar Singh Mann, Anish Khan, Abdullah M Asiri

The ecological concerns and issues such as recycling of plastic products and environmental care are increasingly important to handle the present situation of climate change. As a consequence of growing environmental awareness surrounding society a there is a great interest in the research on more eco-friendly materials that are derived from renewable resources. Therefore, natural composites also known as green bio composites have received attention from researchers and industries to develop biodegradable materials by using natural fibres, those possess outstanding degradable and sustainable properties. Because of its superior properties such as high specific strength, low weight, low cost, reasonably good mechanical properties, non-abrasive, eco-friendly, and bio-degradable characteristics, natural fibres these materials are useful to help researchers, scientists and industries to develop different biodegradable and eco-friendly products. This chapter explored the mechanical properties of natural-glass fibre reinforced polymer composites by considering database from google scholar and other relevant sites.

Natural Fibers, Bio Composites, Applications

Published online 4/10/2022, 26 pages

Citation: Guravtar Singh Mann, Anish Khan, Abdullah M Asiri, Glass and Natural Fiber Composite: Properties and Applications, Materials Research Foundations, Vol. 122, pp 256-281, 2022


Part of the book on Sustainable Natural Fiber Composites

[1] Bhat, A.H., Dasan, Y.K., Khan, I. and Jawaid, M., 2017. Cellulosic biocomposites: Potential materials for future. In Green Biocomposites (pp. 69-100). Springer, Cham.
[2] Khan, A., Rangappa, S.M., Siengchin, S. and Asiri, A.M. eds., 2020. Bios and Biopolymers for Biocomposites: Synthesis, Characterization and Properties. Springer Nature.
[3] Khalil, H.A., Davoudpour, Y., Saurabh, C.K., Hossain, M.S., Adnan, A.S., Dungani, R., Paridah, M.T., Sarker, M.Z.I., Fazita, M.N., Syakir, M.I. and Haafiz, M.K.M., 2016. A review on nanocellulosic fibres as new material for sustainable packaging: Process and applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 64, pp.823-836.
[4] Jawaid, M.H.P.S. and Khalil, H.A., 2011. Cellulosic/synthetic fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites: A review. Carbohydrate polymers, 86(1), pp.1-18.
[5] Vijay, R., Singaravelu, D.L., Vinod, A., Sanjay, M.R., Siengchin, S., Jawaid, M., Khan, A. and Parameswaranpillai, J., 2019. Characterization of raw and alkali treated new natural cellulosic fibers from Tridax procumbens. International journal of biological macromolecules, 125, pp.99-108.
[6] Scott, G. and Wiles, D.M., 2001. Programmed-life plastics from polyolefins: a new look at sustainability. Biomacromolecules, 2(3), pp.615-622.
[7] Pandey, J.K. and Singh, R.P., 2005. Green nanocomposites from renewable resources: effect of plasticizer on the structure and material properties of clay‐filled starch. Starch‐Stärke, 57(1), pp.8-15.
[8] Davis, G. and Song, J.H., 2006. Biodegradable packaging based on raw materials from crops and their impact on waste management. Industrial crops and products, 23(2), pp.147-161.
[9] Rhim, J.W. and Ng, P.K., 2007. Natural biopolymer-based nanocomposite films for packaging applications. C Petersen, K., Nielsen, P.V., Bertelsen, G., Lawther, M., Olsen, M.B., Nilsson, N.H. and Mortensen, G., 1999. Potential of biobased materials for food packaging. Trends in food science & technology, 10(2), pp.52-68.ritical reviews in food science and nutrition, 47(4), pp.411-433.
[10] Khalil, H.A., Davoudpour, Y., Islam, M.N., Mustapha, A., Sudesh, K., Dungani, R. and Jawaid, M., 2014. Production and modification of nanofibrillated cellulose using various mechanical processes: a review. Carbohydrate polymers, 99, pp.649-665.
[11] Mann, G.S., Singh, L.P., Kumar, P. and Singh, S., 2020. Green composites: A review of processing technologies and recent applications. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 33(8), pp.1145-1171.
[12] Zhao, R., Torley, P. and Halley, P.J., 2008. Emerging biodegradable materials: starch-and protein-based bio-nanocomposites. Journal of Materials Science, 43(9), pp.3058-3071.
[13] Lee, S.G. and Xu, X., 2005. Design for the environment: life cycle assessment and sustainable packaging issues. International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, 5(1), pp.14-41.
[14] Kamel, S., 2007. Nanotechnology and its applications in lignocellulosic composites, a mini review. Express Polymer Letters, 1(9), pp.546-575.
[15] Ramamoorthy, S.K., Skrifvars, M. and Persson, A., 2015. A review of natural fibers used in biocomposites: plant, animal and regenerated cellulose s. Polymer reviews, 55(1), pp.107-162.
[16] Yan, L., Chouw, N. and Jayaraman, K., 2014. Flax fibre and its composites–A review. Composites Part B: Engineering, 56, pp.296-317.
[17] Nirmal, U., Hashim, J. and Ahmad, M.M., 2015. A review on tribological performance of natural fibre polymeric composites. Tribology International, 83, pp.77-104.
[18] HOBSON, J. and CARUS, M., 2011. Targets for bio-based composites and natural fibres. JEC composites, (63), pp.31-32.
[19] Mohanty, A.K., Misra, M. and Drzal, L.T. eds., 2005. Natural s, biopolymers, and biocomposites. CRC press.
[20] Dong C. Review of natural -reinforced hybrid composites. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. 2018 Mar;37(5):331-48.
[21] Shah DU, Porter D, Vollrath F. Can silk become an effective reinforcing fibre? A property comparison with flax and glass reinforced composites. Compos Sci Technol 2014;101:173–83.
[22] Abdollah MF, Shuhimi FF, Ismail N, Amiruddin H, Umehara N. Selection and verification of kenaf fibres as an alternative friction material using Weighted Decision Matrix method. Materials & Design. 2015 Feb 15;67:577-82.
[23] De Rosa IM, Kenny JM, Puglia D, Santulli C, Sarasini F. Tensile behavior of New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax) s. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. 2010 Dec;29(23):3450-4.
[24] Dittenber DB, GangaRao HVS. Critical review of recent publications on use of natural composites in infrastructure. Composites Part A 2011;43(8):1419–29.
[25] Mwaikambo L. Review of the history, properties and application of plant fibres. African Journal of Science and Technology. 2006 Dec;7(2):121.
[26] Zini E, Scandola M. Green composites: an overview. Polymer composites. 2011 Dec 1;32(12):1905-15.
[27] Brahim SB, Cheikh RB. Influence of fibre orientation and volume fraction on the tensile properties of unidirectional Alfa-polyester composite. Composites Science and Technology. 2007 Jan 1;67(1):140-7.
[28] Bos HL, Van Den Oever MJ, Peters OC. Tensile and compressive properties of flax fibres for natural fibre reinforced composites. Journal of Materials Science. 2002 Apr 1;37(8):1683-92.
[29] Reddy N, Jiang Q, Yang Y. Biocompatible natural silk fibers from Argema mittrei. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 2012 Oct 1;6(5):558-63.
[30] Le TM, Pickering KL. The potential of harakeke fibre as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites including modelling of long harakeke fibre composite strength. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2015 Sep 1;76:44-53.
[31] Carr DJ, Cruthers NM, Laing RM, Niven BE. fibers from three cultivars of New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax). Textile research journal. 2005 Feb;75(2):93-8.
[32] Pickering KL, Beckermann GW, Alam SN, Foreman NJ. Optimising industrial hemp fibre for composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2007 Feb 1;38(2):461-8.
[33] Pickering K, editor. Properties and performance of natural-fibre composites. Elsevier; 2008 Jun 23.
[34] Cheng S, Lau KT, Liu T, Zhao Y, Lam PM, Yin Y. Mechanical and thermal properties of chicken feather /PLA green composites. Composites Part B: Engineering. 2009 Oct 1;40(7):650-4.
[35] Huson MG, Bedson JB, Phair NL, Turner PS. Intrinsic strength of wool fibres. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2000 Jul 1;13:267-.
[36] Gashti MP, Gashti MP. Effect of colloidal dispersion of clay on some properties of wool . Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology. 2013 May 17;34(6):853-8.
[37] Niu M, Liu X, Dai J, Hou W, Wei L, Xu B. Molecular structure and properties of wool surface-grafted with nano-antibacterial materials. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2012 Feb 1;86:289-93.
[38] Zhan M, Wool RP. Mechanical properties of chicken feather s. Polymer Composites. 2011 Jun 1;32(6):937-44.
[39] Efendy MA, Pickering KL. Comparison of harakeke with hemp fibre as a potential reinforcement in composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2014 Dec 1;67:259-67.
[40] Cheung HY, Ho MP, Lau KT, Cardona F, Hui D. Natural fibre-reinforced composites for bioengineering and environmental engineering applications. Composites Part B: Engineering. 2009 Oct 1;40(7):655-63.
[41] Xie, Y., Hill, C.A., Xiao, Z., Militz, H. and Mai, C., 2010. Silane coupling agents used for natural /polymer composites: A review. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41(7), pp.806-819.
[42] Dittenber, D.B. and GangaRao, H.V., 2012. Critical review of recent publications on use of natural composites in infrastructure. Composites Part A: applied science and manufacturing, 43(8), pp.1419-1429.
[43] Malkapuram, R., Kumar, V. and Negi, Y.S., 2009. Recent development in natural reinforced polypropylene composites. Journal of reinforced plastics and composites, 28(10), pp.1169-1189.
[44] Shubhra, Q.T., Alam, A.K.M.M. and Quaiyyum, M.A., 2013. Mechanical properties of polypropylene composites: A review. Journal of thermoplastic composite materials, 26(3), pp.362-391.
[45] Meier, M.A., Metzger, J.O. and Schubert, U.S., 2007. Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science. Chemical Society Reviews, 36(11), pp.1788-1802.
[46] de Espinosa, L.M. and Meier, M.A., 2011. Plant oils: The perfect renewable resource for polymer science?!. European Polymer Journal, 47(5), pp.837-852.
[47] Gassan, J., Chate, A. and Bledzki, A.K., 2001. Calculation of elastic properties of natural s. Journal of materials science, 36(15), pp.3715-3720.
[48] Charlet, K., Baley, C., Morvan, C., Jernot, J.P., Gomina, M. and Bréard, J., 2007. Characteristics of Hermès flax fibres as a function of their location in the stem and properties of the derived unidirectional composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 38(8), pp.1912-1921.
[49] Wambua, P., Ivens, J. and Verpoest, I., 2003. Natural fibres: can they replace glass in fibre reinforced plastics?. Composites science and technology, 63(9), pp.1259-1264.
[50] Dixit, P.S. and Verma, P., 2012. The effect of hybridization on mechanical behaviour of coir/sisal/jute fibres reinforced polyester composite material. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences ISSN, 2231, p.606X.
[51] Gupta, M.K. and Srivastava, R.K., 2015. Effect of sisal fibre loading on mechanical properties of jute fibre reinforced epoxy composite. Cellulose, 61(71), p.65.
[52] Thiruchitrambalam, M., Athijayamani, A., Sathiyamurthy, S. and Thaheer, A.S.A., 2010. A review on the natural -reinforced polymer composites for the development of roselle -reinforced polyester composite. Journal of Natural s, 7(4), pp.307-323.
[53] Mishra, A., 2013. Strength and corrosion testing of jute/glass-epoxy hybrid composite laminates. Plastic and Polymer Technology, 2(2), pp.48-54.
[54] Berhanu, T., Kumar, P. and Singh, I., 2014, December. Mechanical behaviour of jute fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. In 5th International & 25th All India Manufacturing Technology, Design and Research Conference (AIMTDR 2014) December 12th-14th.
[55] Sumaila, M., Amber, I. and Bawa, M., 2013. Effect of length on the physical and mechanical properties of ramdom oriented, nonwoven short banana (musabalbisiana) /epoxy composite. Cellulose, 62, p.64.
[56] Nayak, S.K., Mohanty, S. and Samal, S.K., 2009. Influence of short bamboo/glass on the thermal, dynamic mechanical and rheological properties of polypropylene hybrid composites. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 523(1-2), pp.32-38.
[57] Singh, J.I.P., Singh, S. and Dhawan, V., 2018. Effect of curing temperature on mechanical properties of natural reinforced polymer composites. Journal of Natural s, 15(5), pp.687-696.
[58] Abdullah-Al-Kafi, Abedin, M.Z., Beg, M.D.H., Pickering, K.L. and Khan, M.A., 2006. Study on the mechanical properties of jute/glass -reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites: Effect of surface modification by ultraviolet radiation. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 25(6), pp.575-588.
[59] Ahmed, K.S., Vijayarangan, S. and Rajput, C., 2006. Mechanical behavior of isothalic polyester-based untreated woven jute and glass fabric hybrid composites. Journal of reinforced plastics and composites, 25(15), pp.1549-1569.
[60] Jawaid, M., Khalil, H.A., Hassan, A., Dungani, R. and Hadiyane, A., 2013. Effect of jute fibre loading on tensile and dynamic mechanical properties of oil palm epoxy composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 45(1), pp.619-624.
[61] Bharath, K.N. and Basavarajappa, S., 2016. Applications of biocomposite materials based on natural fibers from renewable resources: a review. Science and Engineering of Composite Materials, 23(2), pp.123-133.
[62] Ticoalu, A., Aravinthan, T. and Cardona, F., 2010. A review of current development in natural composites for structural and infrastructure applications. In Proceedings of the southern region engineering conference (SREC 2010) (pp. 113-117). Engineers Australia.
[63] Jarukumjorn, K. and Suppakarn, N., 2009. Effect of glass hybridization on properties of sisal –polypropylene composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 40(7), pp.623-627.
[64] Ganesh, B.N. and Rekha, B., 2015. A comparative study on tensile behavior of plant and animal reinforced composites. International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies, 1(1).
[65] Nair, L.S. and Laurencin, C.T., 2007. Biodegradable polymers as biomaterials. Progress in polymer science, 32(8-9), pp.762-798.
[66] Olusegun, D.S., Stephen, A. and Adekanye, T.A., 2012. Assessing mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced composites for engineering applications. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 11(1), pp.780-784.
[67] Harish, S., Michael, D.P., Bensely, A., Lal, D.M. and Rajadurai, A., 2009. Mechanical property evaluation of natural coir composite. Materials characterization, 60(1), pp.44-49.
[68] de Andrade Silva, F., Toledo Filho, R.D., de Almeida Melo Filho, J. and Fairbairn, E.D.M.R., 2010. Physical and mechanical properties of durable sisal –cement composites. Construction and building materials, 24(5), pp.777-785.
[69] Santo, V.E., Duarte, A.R.C., Gomes, M.E., Mano, J.F. and Reis, R.L., 2010. Hybrid 3D structure of poly (d, l-lactic acid) loaded with chitosan/chondroitin sulfate nanoparticles to be used as carriers for biomacromolecules in tissue engineering. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 54(3), pp.320-327.
[70] Reddy N, Yang Y. Biocomposites developed using water‐plasticized wheat gluten as matrix and jute fibers as reinforcement. Polymer International. 2011 Apr 1;60(4):711-6.
[71] Li, G., Li, Y., Chen, G., He, J., Han, Y., Wang, X. and Kaplan, D.L., 2015. Silk‐based biomaterials in biomedical textiles and ‐based implants. Advanced healthcare materials, 4(8), pp.1134-1151.
[72] Chen, X., Li, Y. and Gu, N., 2010. A novel basalt -reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair. Biomedical Materials, 5(4), p.044104.
[73] Goswami, J., Bhatnagar, N., Mohanty, S. and Ghosh, A.K., 2013. Processing and characterization of poly (lactic acid) based bioactive composites for biomedical scaffold application. Express Polymer Letters, 7(9).
[74] Cao, Y., Groll, T.I., O’Connor, A.J., Stevens, G.W. and Cooper-White, J.J., 2004, December. Systematic selection of solvents for the fabrication of 3D PLGA scaffolds for tissue engineering. In Transactions-7th World Biomaterials Congress.
[75] Zhang, Q., Mochalin, V.N., Neitzel, I., Knoke, I.Y., Han, J., Klug, C.A., Zhou, J.G., Lelkes, P.I. and Gogotsi, Y., 2011. Fluorescent PLLA-nanodiamond composites for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 32(1), pp.87-94.
[76] Youssef, A.M. and El-Sayed, S.M., 2018. Bionanocomposites materials for food packaging applications: Concepts and future outlook. Carbohydrate polymers, 193, pp.19-27.
[77] Bradley, E.L., Castle, L. and Chaudhry, Q., 2011. Applications of nanomaterials in food packaging with a consideration of opportunities for developing countries. Trends in food science & technology, 22(11), pp.604-610.
[78] Ludueña, L., Vázquez, A. and Alvarez, V., 2012. Effect of lignocellulosic filler type and content on the behavior of polycaprolactone based eco-composites for packaging applications. Carbohydrate polymers, 87(1), pp.411-421.
[79] Chauhan, V.S. and Chakrabarti, S.K., 2012. Use of nanotechnology for high performance cellulosic and papermaking products. Cellulose chemistry and technology, 46(5), p.389.
[80] Thielemans, W., Warbey, C.R. and Walsh, D.A., 2009. Permselective nanostructured membranes based on cellulose nanowhiskers. Green Chemistry, 11(4), pp.531-537.
[81] Srinivasa, P.C. and Tharanathan, R.N., 2007. Chitin/chitosan—Safe, ecofriendly packaging materials with multiple potential uses. Food reviews international, 23(1), pp.53-72.
[82] Youssef, A.M., 2013. Polymer nanocomposites as a new trend for packaging applications. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52(7), pp.635-660.
[83] Ashori, A., Babaee, M., Jonoobi, M. and Hamzeh, Y., 2014. Solvent-free acetylation of cellulose nanos for improving compatibility and dispersion. Carbohydrate polymers, 102, pp.369-375.
[84] Valdés, A., Mellinas, A.C., Ramos, M., Garrigós, M.C. and Jiménez, A., 2014. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging. Frontiers in chemistry, 2, p.6.
[85] Ludueña, L., Vázquez, A. and Alvarez, V., 2012. Effect of lignocellulosic filler type and content on the behavior of polycaprolactone based eco-composites for packaging applications. Carbohydrate polymers, 87(1), pp.411-421.
[86] Yam, K.L. and Lee, D.S. eds., 2012. Emerging food packaging technologies: Principles and practice. Elsevier.
[87] Zhang, H.C., Kuo, T.C., Lu, H. and Huang, S.H., 1997. Environmentally conscious design and manufacturing: a state-of-the-art survey. Journal of manufacturing systems, 16(5), pp.352-371.
[88] Lewis, H., Verghese, K. and Fitzpatrick, L., 2010. Evaluating the sustainability impacts of packaging: the plastic carry bag dilemma. Packaging Technology and Science: An International Journal, 23(3), pp.145-160.
[89] Sanjay, M.R. and Yogesha, B., 2017. Studies on natural/glass reinforced polymer hybrid composites: An evolution. Materials today: proceedings, 4(2), pp.2739-2747.
[90] Sanjay, M.R., Arpitha, G.R. and Yogesha, B., 2015. Study on mechanical properties of natural-glass fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites: A review. Materials today: proceedings, 2(4-5), pp.2959-2967.
[91] Holbery, J. and Houston, D., 2006. Natural–reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications. Jom, 58(11), pp.80-86.
[92] Koronis, G., Silva, A. and Fontul, M., 2013. Green composites: A review of adequate materials for automotive applications. Composites Part B: Engineering, 44(1), pp.120-127.
[93] Mohanty, A.K., Misra, M. and Drzal, L.T. eds., 2005. Natural s, biopolymers, and biocomposites. CRC press.
[94] Davies, G., 2012. Materials for automobile bodies. Butterworth-Heinemann.
[95] Drzal, L.T., Misra, M. and Mohanty, A.K. eds., 2005. Natural s, biopolymers, and biocomposites. Taylor & Francis.
[96] Müssig, J., Schmehl, M., Von Buttlar, H.B., Schönfeld, U. and Arndt, K., 2006. Exterior components based on renewable resources produced with SMC technology—Considering a bus component as example. Industrial Crops and Products, 24(2), pp.132-145.
[97] Brosius, D., 2006. Natural composites slowly take root. Composites Technology, 12(1), pp.32-37.
[98] Chen, Y., Sun, L., Chiparus, O., Negulescu, I., Yachmenev, V. and Warnock, M., 2005. Kenaf/ramie composite for automotive headliner. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 13(2), pp.107-114.
[99] Arbelaiz, A., Fernández, B., Cantero, G., Llano-Ponte, R., Valea, A. and Mondragon, I., 2005. Mechanical properties of flax fibre/polypropylene composites. Influence of fibre/matrix modification and glass fibre hybridization. Composites Part A: applied science and manufacturing, 36(12), pp.1637-1644.
[100] Fatima, S. and Mohanty, A.R., 2011. Acoustical and fire-retardant properties of jute composite materials. Applied acoustics, 72(2-3), pp.108-114.
[101] Ray, D., 2015. 12 state-of-the-art applications of natural composites in the industry. Nat Compos, 5, p.319.
[102] Ashori, A., 2008. Wood–plastic composites as promising green-composites for automotive industries!. Bioresource technology, 99(11), pp.4661-4667.
[103] Akampumuza, O., Wambua, P.M., Ahmed, A., Li, W. and Qin, X.H., 2017. Review of the applications of biocomposites in the automotive industry. Polymer Composites, 38(11), pp.2553-2569.
[104] Shahzad, A., 2012. Hemp and its composites–a review. Journal of Composite Materials, 46(8), pp.973-986.
[105] Netravali, A.N. and Chabba, S., 2003. Composites get greener. Materials today, 4(6), pp.22-29.
[106] Mann, G.S., Singh, L.P., Kumar, P. and Singh, S., 2020. Green composites: A review of processing technologies and recent applications. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 33(8), pp.1145-1171.
[107] Van Rijswijk, K., Brouwer, W.D. and Beukers, A., 2001. Application of natural fibre composites in the development of rural societies. Delft: Delft University of Technology.
[108] Peng, X., Fan, M., Hartley, J. and Al-Zubaidy, M., 2012. Properties of natural composites made by pultrusion process. Journal of Composite Materials, 46(2), pp.237-246.
[109] Nishino, T., 2004. Natural fibre sources. Green composites: Polymer composites and the environment, pp.49-80.
[110] La Rosa, A.D., Recca, A., Gagliano, A., Summerscales, J., Latteri, A., Cozzo, G. and Cicala, G., 2014. Environmental impacts and thermal insulation performance of innovative composite solutions for building applications. Construction and Building Materials, 55, pp.406-414.
[111] Yudelson, J., 2010. The green building revolution. Island Press.
[112] Karus, M., 2004. European hemp industry 2002: cultivation, processing and product lines. Journal of Industrial Hemp, 9(2), pp.93-101.