Photocatalytic Heavy Metal Detoxification from Water Systems


Photocatalytic Heavy Metal Detoxification from Water Systems

P. Senthil Kumar, G. Janet Joshiba

Heavy metals are one of the greatest elevating threat to mankind and other living organisms and it is released into the environment due to increasing dumpsites, transports, and industrial sectors. The industrial wastewater containing heavy metal ions easily enters into the food chain through the air, water, and soil; it results in bioaccumulation and biomagnifications of metal ions in human beings. It causes severe chronic health disorders affecting the nervous system, circulatory system, digestive system and other sensitive organs of the human body. Many conventional techniques such as adsorption, coagulation, flocculation, electrochemical treatment, and biological treatment are used for the reduction of heavy metal ions in the aqueous system. The photocatalysis method is one of the emerging effective ways for eliminating the toxic metal ions from the aqueous solution. This chapter elaborates the principle, mechanism and various methods utilized in the photocatalytic reduction of heavy metal ions from the wastewater.

Photocatalytic, Heavy Metal, Environment, Mechanism, Wastewater

Published online 4/1/2021, 20 pages

Citation: P. Senthil Kumar, G. Janet Joshiba, Photocatalytic Heavy Metal Detoxification from Water Systems, Materials Research Foundations, Vol. 100, pp 57-76, 2021


Part of the book on Photocatalysis

[1] J. O. Duruibe, M. O. C. Ogwuegbu, J. N. Egwurugwu, Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects, International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2 (2007) 112-118.
[2] C. F. Carolin, P.S. Kuma, A. Saravanan, G. J. Joshiba, Mu. Naushad, Efficient Techniques for the Removal of Toxic Heavy Metals from Aquatic Environment: A Review, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 5 (2017) 2782-2799.
[3] A. Roychowdary, R. Dutta, D. Sarkar, Heavy Metal Pollution and Remediation, Green chemistry, in: B. Torok, T. Dransfield, Green chemistry, Elsevier, USA, 2018, pp 359-373.
[4] P. K. Rai, S. S. Lee, M. Zhang, Y. F. Tsangd, K. H. Kim, Heavy metals in food crops: Health risks, fate, mechanisms, and management, Environment International, 125 (2019) 365- 385.
[5] S. Rangabhashiyam, P. Balasubramanian, Characteristics, performances, equilibrium and kinetic modeling aspects of heavy metal removal using algae, Bioresource technology reports, 5 (2019) 261-279.
[6] A. S. Mohammed, A. Kapri, R. Goel, Heavy Metal Pollution: Source, Impact, and Remedies, In: M. Khan, A. Zaidi, R. Goel, J. Musarrat, Biomanagement of Metal-Contaminated Soils, Environmental pollution, Springer, Dordrecht, 2011, pp 1-28.
[7] P. B. Tchounwou, C. G. Yedjou, A. K. Patlolla, D. J. Sutton, Heavy Metals Toxicity and the Environment, HHS Author Manuscripts, 101 (2012)133–164.
[8] L. Fang,L. Li,Z. Qu, H. Xu,J. Xu,N. Yan, A novel method for the sequential removal and separation of multiple heavy metals from wastewater, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 342 (2018) 617–624.
[9] S. Hou, X. Xu, M. Wang, T. Lu, C. Q. Sun, L. Pan, Synergistic conversion and removal of total Cr from aqueous solution by photocatalysis and capacitive deionization, Chemical engineering journal, 337 (2018) 398- 404.
[10] P. Chowdhury, A. Elkamel, A. K. Ray, Photocatalytic Processes for the Removal of ToxicMetal Ions, in: S. Sharma, Heavy Metals In Water : Presence, Removal and Safety, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014, pp 25-43.
[11] R. Ameta, M. S. Solanki, S. Benjamin, S. C. Ameta, Photocatalysis, Advanced Oxidation Processes for Waste Water Treatment Emerging Green Chemical Technology, 2018, pp 135-175.
[13] E. T. Wahyuni, N. H. Aprilita, H. Hatimah, A. M. Wulandari, M. Mudasir, Removal of Toxic Metal Ions in Water by Photocatalytic Method, American Chemical Science Journal 5 (2015) 194-201.
[14] M.A. Barakat, New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater, Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 4 (2011) 361–377.
[15] V. Belgiorn, L. Rizzo, D. Fatta, C. D. Rocca, G. Lofrano, A. Nikolaou, V. Naddeo, Review on endocrine disrupting-emerging compounds in urban wastewater: occurrence and removal by photocatalysis and ultrasonic irradiation for wastewater reuse, Desalination, 215 (2007) 166–176.
[16] R. K. Gautam, S. K. Sharma, S. Mahiya, M. C. Chattopadhaya, Contamination of Heavy metals in aquatic media: Transport, Toxicity and Technologies for remediation, In: S. K. Sharma, Heavy Metals In Water: Presence, Removal and Safety, Royal society of chemistry, 2015.
[17] M. A. Habila, Z. A. ALOthman, A. M. El-Toni, J. P. Labis, M. Soylak, Synthesis and application of Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 for Photocatalytic Decomposition of Organic Matrix Simultaneously with Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction of Heavy Metals prior to ICP-MS analysis, Talanta, 154 (2016) 539-547.
[18] F. A. Harraz, O. E. Abdel-Salam, A. A. Mostafa, R. M. Mohamed, M. Hanafy, Rapid synthesis of titania–silica nanoparticles photocatalyst by a modified sol–gel method for cyanide degradation and heavy metals removal, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 551 (2013) 1–7.
[19] A. T. Le, S. Y. Pung, S. Sreekantan, A. Matsuda, D. P. Huynh, Mechanisms of removal of heavy metal ions by ZnO particles, Heliyon, 5 (2019).
[20] M. I. Litter, Mechanisms of removal of heavy metals and arsenic from water by TiO2-heterogeneous photocatalysis, Pure Applied Chemistry, 8 7(2015) 557–567.
[21] S. Rengaraj, S. Venkataraj, J. W. Yeon, Y. Kim, X. Z. Li, G. K. H. Pang, Preparation, characterization and application of Nd–TiO2 photocatalyst for the reduction of Cr(VI) under UV light illumination, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 77 (2007) 157-165.
[22] M. N. Subramaniam, P. S. Goh, W. J. Lau, A. F. Ismail, The Roles of Nanomaterials in Conventional and Emerging Technologies for Heavy Metal Removal: A State-of-the-Art Review, Nanomaterials, 9 (2009).
[23] P. K. Dutta, S. K. Pehkonen, V. K. Sharma, A. K. Ray, Photocatalytic Oxidation of Arsenic(III): Evidence of Hydroxyl Radicals, Environmental Science & Technology, 39 (2005) 1827-1834.
[24] A. Majumder, M. Chaudari, Solar photocatalytic oxidation and removal of Arsenic from ground water, Indian Journal of Engineering & Material sciences, 12 (2005) 122-128.
[25] N. R. Reyna, L. H. Reyes, J. L. Guzman-Mar, Y. Cai, K. O. Shea, A. H. Ramirez, Photocatalytical removal of inorganic and organic arsenic species from aqueous solution using zinc oxide semiconductor, Photochemical Photobiological Sciences, 12 (2013) 653-659.
[26] M. Visa and A. Duta, TiO2/fly ash novel substrate for simultaneous removal of heavymetals and surfactants, Chemical Engineering Journal, 223 (2013) 860–868.
[27] S. Rahimi, M. Ahmadian, R. Barati, N. Yousefi, S. P. Moussavi, K. Rahimi, S. Reshadat, S. R. Ghasemi, N. R. Gilan, A. Fatehizadeh, Photocatalytic removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from simulated wastewater at continuous and batch system, Int Jounal of Environmental Health Engineering, 3 (2014).
[28] M. N. Rashed, M. A. Eltaher, A. N. A. Abdou, Adsorption and photocatalysis for methyl orange and Cd removal from wastewater using TiO2/sewage sludge-based activated carbon nanocomposites, Royal society open science, 4(2017).
[29] A. P. Davis, D. L. Green, Photocatalytic Oxidation of Cadmium-EDTA with Titanium Dioxide, Environmental Science & Technology, 33 (1999) 609-617.
[30] A. J.Chaudhary, M. Hassan, S. M. Grimes, Simultaneous recovery of metals and degradation of organic species: Copper and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), Journal of Hazardous Materials, 165 (2009) 825 – 831.
[31] D. Kanakaraju, S. Ravichandar, Y. C. Lim, Combined effects of adsorption and photocatalysis by hybrid TiO2/ZnO-calcium alginate beads for the removal of copper, Journal of Environmental sciences, 55 (2017) 214-223.
[32] Y. Zhu, W. Fan, T. Zhou, X. Li, Removal of chelated heavy metals from aqueous solution: A review of current methods and mechanisms, Science of the Total Environment, 678 (2019) 253–266.
[33] S. Sreekantan, C. W. Lai, S. M. Zaki, The Influence of Lead Concentration on Photocatalytic Reduction of Pb(II) Ions Assisted by Cu-TiO2 Nanotubes, International Journal of Photoenergy, 2014.
[34] T.Mishra, J.Hait, N. Aman, R.K.Jana, S.Chakravarty, Effect of UV and visible light on photocatalytic reduction of lead and cadmium over titania based binary oxide materials, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 316 (2007) 80-84.
[35] L. Murruni, G. Leyya, M. I. Litter, Photocatalytic removal of Pb(II) over TiO2 and Pt–TiO2 powders, Catalysis Today, 129 (2007) 127-135.