Functionalized Graphene Modified Electrochemical Sensors for Toxic Chemicals


Functionalized Graphene Modified Electrochemical Sensors for Toxic Chemicals

Bhawana Singh, Anurag Kumar Kushwaha, Siddharth Sankar Singh, Shyam Sundar

Toxic chemicals including pesticides, organic/inorganic compounds etc. are potential threat to the environment as well as the living beings. Indeed, their end products are potential carcinogen and/or mutagens. Use of graphene has been the cutting-edge innovation in nanoengineering due to its unique electrochemical properties. The wide array of chemical modifications of graphene (also termed as functionalization) confers million adjunctive properties to the graphene and significantly improves its performance. Further, graphene-based nanomaterials provide inexpensive, reusable and eco-friendly option overcoming the limitations associated with commercially available electrochemical sensors. Recent development in functionalized graphene-based sensors holds promises for rapid and simultaneous detection of several chemicals. Future efforts aim to further improve the existing electrochemical sensors in terms of their performance for proper management of toxic and hazardous waste and protecting our ecosystem. This chapter aims to provide a comprehensive understanding on the latest researches on development of functionalized graphene-based nanomaterials for designing electrochemical sensors, engineering and fabrication of graphene for detection of different group of toxic chemicals and its role in improving the existing nanocomposite based electrochemical sensors.

Nanoengineering, Pesticides, Drugs, Neurotoxins, Hepatotoxins

Published online 8/30/2020, 36 pages

Citation: Bhawana Singh, Anurag Kumar Kushwaha, Siddharth Sankar Singh, Shyam Sundar, Functionalized Graphene Modified Electrochemical Sensors for Toxic Chemicals, Materials Research Foundations, Vol. 82, pp 25-60, 2020


Part of the book on Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Toxic Chemicals

[1] Organization, W.H., The public health impact of chemicals: knowns and unknowns. 2016, World Health Organization.
[2] Prüss-Üstün, A., et al., Preventing disease through healthy environments: a global assessment of the burden of disease from environmental risks. 2016: World Health Organization.
[3] Febbraio, F., Biochemical strategies for the detection and detoxification of toxic chemicals in the environment. World journal of biological chemistry, 2017. 8(1): p. 13.
[4] Chen, Y., Organophosphate-induced brain damage: mechanisms, neuropsychiatric and neurological consequences, and potential therapeutic strategies. Neurotoxicology, 2012. 33(3): p. 391-400.
[5] Barnett, L.M. and B.S. Cummings, Nephrotoxicity and renal pathophysiology: a contemporary perspective. Toxicological Sciences, 2018. 164(2): p. 379-390.
[6] Rim, K.-T., Reproductive Toxic Chemicals at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers’ Health: A Literature Review. Safety and health at work, 2017. 8(2): p. 143-150.
[7] Ribeiro, A.R. and G. de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Effects of a textile azo dye on mortality, regeneration, and reproductive performance of the planarian, Girardia tigrina. Environmental Sciences Europe, 2014. 26(1): p. 22.
[8] Leonardi-Bee, J., J. Britton, and A. Venn, Secondhand smoke and adverse fetal outcomes in nonsmoking pregnant women: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 2011. 127(4): p. 734-741.
[9] Pressman, P., et al., Food additive safety: A review of toxicologic and regulatory issues. Toxicology Research and application, 2017. 1: p. 2397847317723572.
[10] Frankos, V.H. and J.V. Rodricks, Food additives and nutrition supplements. Regulatory toxicology. London: Taylor & Francis, 2001: p. 133-166.
[11] Dasgupta, M., Neurotoxicity, Immunotoxicity and Drug Toxicity–A Review.
[12] Schulz, M., et al., Therapeutic and toxic blood concentrations of nearly 1,000 drugs and other xenobiotics. Critical care, 2012. 16(4): p. R136.
[13] Harvey, A.L., Toxins and drug discovery. Toxicon, 2014. 92: p. 193-200.
[14] Waller, D.G. and T. Sampson, Medical pharmacology and therapeutics E-Book. 2017: Elsevier Health Sciences.
[15] Nriagu, J.O., Encyclopedia of environmental health. 2019: Elsevier.
[16] Wilkinson, C.F., et al., Assessing the risks of exposures to multiple chemicals with a common mechanism of toxicity: how to cumulate? Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2000. 31(1): p. 30-43.
[17] Franco, R., et al., Molecular mechanisms of pesticide-induced neurotoxicity: Relevance to Parkinson’s disease. Chemico-biological interactions, 2010. 188(2): p. 289-300.
[18] Katagi, T., Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and metabolism of pesticides in aquatic organisms, in Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2010, Springer. p. 1-132.
[19] Zhang, Y., Why do we study animal toxins? Zoological research, 2015. 36(4): p. 183.
[20] Schafer, K.S. and S.E. Kegley, Persistent toxic chemicals in the US food supply. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 2002. 56(11): p. 813-817.
[21] Hernández, R., et al., Reduced graphene oxide films as solid transducers in potentiometric all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2012. 116(42): p. 22570-22578.
[22] Norouzi, P., et al., A glucose biosensor based on nanographene and ZnO nanoparticles using FFT continuous cyclic voltammetry. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci, 2011. 6(11): p. 5189-5195.
[23] Yuan, M., et al., Bimetallic PdCu nanoparticle decorated three-dimensional graphene hydrogel for non-enzymatic amperometric glucose sensor. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2014. 190: p. 707-714.
[24] Council, N.R., Expanding the vision of sensor materials. 1995: National Academies Press.
[25] Nomenclature, E.T. and A. Terminology, Standard MC6. 1-1975 (ISA S37. 1). Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1975.
[26] Lion, K.S., Transducers: Problems and prospects. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics and Control Instrumentation, 1969(1): p. 2-5.
[27] Göpel, W., J. Hesse, and J.N. Zemel, Sensors: a comprehensive survey. 1989.
[28] Middelhoek, S. and D. Noorlag, Three-dimensional representation of input and output transducers. Sensors and Actuators, 1981. 2: p. 29-41.
[29] Khan, S.B., et al., Humidity and temperature sensing properties of copper oxide–Si-adhesive nanocomposite. Talanta, 2014. 120: p. 443-449.
[30] Wu, C.H., et al., Ta3N5 Nanowire Bundles as Visible‐Light‐Responsive Photoanodes. Chemistry–An Asian Journal, 2013. 8(10): p. 2354-2357.
[31] Tüysüz, H., et al., Mesoporous Co 3 O 4 as an electrocatalyst for water oxidation. Nano Research, 2013. 6(1): p. 47-54.
[32] Dadashi‐Silab, S., et al., Photoinduced atom transfer radical polymerization using semiconductor nanoparticles. Macromolecular rapid communications, 2014. 35(4): p. 454-459.
[33] Ling, X.Y., et al., Alumina-coated Ag nanocrystal monolayers as surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy platforms for the direct spectroscopic detection of water splitting reaction intermediates. Nano Research, 2014. 7(1): p. 132-143.
[34] Liu, S. and Z. Tang, Nanoparticle assemblies for biological and chemical sensing. Journal of Materials chemistry, 2010. 20(1): p. 24-35.
[35] Marwani, H.M., et al., Cellulose-lanthanum hydroxide nanocomposite as a selective marker for detection of toxic copper. Nanoscale research letters, 2014. 9(1): p. 466.
[36] Khan, M.M., et al., Novel Ag@ TiO2 nanocomposite synthesized by electrochemically active biofilm for nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 2013. 33(8): p. 4692-4699.
[37] Asif, S.A.B., S.B. Khan, and A.M. Asiri, Efficient solar photocatalyst based on cobalt oxide/iron oxide composite nanofibers for the detoxification of organic pollutants. Nanoscale research letters, 2014. 9(1): p. 510.
[38] Khan, S.B., et al., Detection and Monitoring of Toxic Chemical at Ultra Trace Level by Utilizing Doped Nanomaterial. PloS one, 2014. 9(10).
[39] Liu, G. and Y. Lin, Biosensor based on self-assembling acetylcholinesterase on carbon nanotubes for flow injection/amperometric detection of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Analytical Chemistry, 2006. 78(3): p. 835-843.
[40] Wang, J., C. Timchalk, and Y. Lin, Carbon nanotube-based electrochemical sensor for assay of salivary cholinesterase enzyme activity: an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Environmental science & technology, 2008. 42(7): p. 2688-2693.
[41] Kim, S.N., J.F. Rusling, and F. Papadimitrakopoulos, Carbon nanotubes for electronic and electrochemical detection of biomolecules. Advanced materials, 2007. 19(20): p. 3214-3228.
[42] Chen, S., et al., Amperometric third-generation hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on the immobilization of hemoglobin on multiwall carbon nanotubes and gold colloidal nanoparticles. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2007. 22(7): p. 1268-1274.
[43] Patolsky, F., G. Zheng, and C.M. Lieber, Fabrication of silicon nanowire devices for ultrasensitive, label-free, real-time detection of biological and chemical species. Nature protocols, 2006. 1(4): p. 1711.
[44] Liu, G. and Y. Lin, Electrochemical sensor for organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents using zirconia nanoparticles as selective sorbents. Analytical chemistry, 2005. 77(18): p. 5894-5901.
[45] Guo, S. and E. Wang, Synthesis and electrochemical applications of gold nanoparticles. Analytica chimica acta, 2007. 598(2): p. 181-192.
[46] Pumera, M., et al., Graphene for electrochemical sensing and biosensing. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 2010. 29(9): p. 954-965.
[47] Wang, Q.H. and M.C. Hersam, Room-temperature molecular-resolution characterization of self-assembled organic monolayers on epitaxial graphene. Nature Chemistry, 2009. 1(3): p. 206.
[48] Malig, J., et al., Wet chemistry of graphene. Electrochemical Society Interface, 2011. 20(1): p. 53.
[49] Georgakilas, V., et al., Functionalization of graphene: covalent and non-covalent approaches, derivatives and applications. Chemical reviews, 2012. 112(11): p. 6156-6214.
[50] Georgakilas, V., et al., Noncovalent functionalization of graphene and graphene oxide for energy materials, biosensing, catalytic, and biomedical applications. Chemical reviews, 2016. 116(9): p. 5464-5519.
[51] Young, R.J., et al., The mechanics of graphene nanocomposites: a review. Composites Science and Technology, 2012. 72(12): p. 1459-1476.
[52] Bartlett, N. and B. McQuillan, Intercalation Chemistry ed MS Whittingham and AJ Jacobson. 1982, New York: Academic Press.
[53] Shi, Y., et al., Work function engineering of graphene electrode via chemical doping. ACS nano, 2010. 4(5): p. 2689-2694.
[54] Wang, X., et al., N-doping of graphene through electrothermal reactions with ammonia. Science, 2009. 324(5928): p. 768-771.
[55] Lin, Y.-C., C.-Y. Lin, and P.-W. Chiu, Controllable graphene N-doping with ammonia plasma. Applied Physics Letters, 2010. 96(13): p. 133110.
[56] McNaught, A.D. and A. Wilkinson, Compendium of chemical terminology. Vol. 1669. 1997: Blackwell Science Oxford.
[57] Wang, B., et al., Preparation of nickel nanoparticle/graphene composites for non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor applications. Materials Research Bulletin, 2014. 49: p. 521-524.
[58] Yang, Z., et al., Graphene oxide based ultrasensitive flow-through chemiluminescent immunoassay for sub-picogram level detection of chicken interferon-γ. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2014. 51: p. 356-361.
[59] Cheng, Y., et al., Highly sensitive luminol electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on ZnO nanoparticles and glucose oxidase decorated graphene for cancer biomarker detection. Analytica chimica acta, 2012. 745: p. 137-142.
[60] Li, M., et al., Nanostructured sensors for detection of heavy metals: a review. 2013, ACS Publications.
[61] Aragay, G., J. Pons, and A. Merkoçi, Recent trends in macro-, micro-, and nanomaterial-based tools and strategies for heavy-metal detection. Chemical reviews, 2011. 111(5): p. 3433-3458.
[62] Carter, K.P., A.M. Young, and A.E. Palmer, Fluorescent sensors for measuring metal ions in living systems. Chemical reviews, 2014. 114(8): p. 4564-4601.
[63] Tian, W., X. Liu, and W. Yu, Research progress of gas sensor based on graphene and its derivatives: A review. Applied Sciences, 2018. 8(7): p. 1118.
[64] Gadipelli, S. and Z.X. Guo, Graphene-based materials: Synthesis and gas sorption, storage and separation. Progress in Materials Science, 2015. 69: p. 1-60.
[65] Tuantranont, A., Applications of nanomaterials in sensors and diagnostics. Springer series on chemical sensors and biosensors (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2014), 2013.
[66] Irudayaraj, J.M., Biomedical nanosensors. 2012: Pan Stanford.
[67] Yuan, K., et al., Nanofibrous and graphene-templated conjugated microporous polymer materials for flexible chemosensors and supercapacitors. Chemistry of Materials, 2015. 27(21): p. 7403-7411.
[68] Smith, A. and S. Gangolli, Organochlorine chemicals in seafood: occurrence and health concerns. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2002. 40(6): p. 767-779.
[69] Li, Z., et al., A nanocomposite of copper (ii) functionalized graphene and application for sensing sulfurated organophosphorus pesticides. New Journal of Chemistry, 2013. 37(12): p. 3956-3963.
[70] Han, Q., et al., Application of graphene for the SPE clean‐up of organophosphorus pesticides residues from apple juices. Journal of separation science, 2014. 37(1-2): p. 99-105.
[71] Anđelić, N., Z. Car, and M. Čanađija, NEMS Resonators for Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Based on Graphene Sheet. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2019. 2019.
[72] Varghese, S.S., et al., Recent advances in graphene based gas sensors. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2015. 218: p. 160-183.
[73] Yang, C.-S., et al., Enhancing gas sensing properties of graphene by using a nanoporous substrate. 2D Materials, 2016. 3(1): p. 011007.
[74] Sui, Z., et al., Green synthesis of carbon nanotube–graphene hybrid aerogels and their use as versatile agents for water purification. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2012. 22(18): p. 8767-8771.
[75] Chen, W., et al., Recent advances in electrochemical sensing for hydrogen peroxide: a review. Analyst, 2012. 137(1): p. 49-58.
[76] Zhang, R. and W. Chen, Recent advances in graphene-based nanomaterials for fabricating electrochemical hydrogen peroxide sensors. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2017. 89: p. 249-268.
[77] Zhang, M., et al., Free-standing and flexible graphene papers as disposable non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors. Bioelectrochemistry, 2016. 109: p. 87-94.
[78] Xiao, F., et al., Coating graphene paper with 2D-assembly of electrocatalytic nanoparticles: a modular approach toward high-performance flexible electrodes. ACS nano, 2012. 6(1): p. 100-110.
[79] Liang, B., et al., Fabrication and application of flexible graphene silk composite film electrodes decorated with spiky Pt nanospheres. Nanoscale, 2014. 6(8): p. 4264-4274.
[80] Xiao, F., et al., Growth of metal–metal oxide nanostructures on freestanding graphene paper for flexible biosensors. Advanced Functional Materials, 2012. 22(12): p. 2487-2494.
[81] Zhang, Q., et al., Direct Electrochemistry and Electrocatalysis of Horseradish Peroxidase Immobilized on Water Soluble Sulfonated Graphene Film via Self‐assembly. Electroanalysis, 2011. 23(4): p. 900-906.
[82] Zhong, L., et al., Electrochemically controlled growth of silver nanocrystals on graphene thin film and applications for efficient nonenzymatic H2O2 biosensor. Electrochimica Acta, 2013. 89: p. 222-228.
[83] Xi, Q., et al., Gold nanoparticle-embedded porous graphene thin films fabricated via layer-by-layer self-assembly and subsequent thermal annealing for electrochemical sensing. Langmuir, 2012. 28(25): p. 9885-9892.
[84] Song, R.-M., et al., Flexible hydrogen peroxide sensors based on platinum modified free-standing reduced graphene oxide paper. Applied Sciences, 2018. 8(6): p. 848.
[85] Luning Prak, D.J. and D.W. O’Sullivan, Solubility of 2, 4-dinitrotoluene and 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene in seawater. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 2006. 51(2): p. 448-450.
[86] Letzel, S., et al., Exposure to nitroaromatic explosives and health effects during disposal of military waste. Occupational and environmental medicine, 2003. 60(7): p. 483-488.
[87] Walsh, M.E., Determination of nitroaromatic, nitramine, and nitrate ester explosives in soil by gas chromatography and an electron capture detector. Talanta, 2001. 54(3): p. 427-438.
[88] Liu, M. and W. Chen, Graphene nanosheets-supported Ag nanoparticles for ultrasensitive detection of TNT by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2013. 46: p. 68-73.
[89] Mullen, C., et al., Detection of explosives and explosives-related compounds by single photon laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Analytical chemistry, 2006. 78(11): p. 3807-3814.
[90] Zhang, L., et al., Simple and sensitive fluorescent and electrochemical trinitrotoluene sensors based on aqueous carbon dots. Analytical chemistry, 2015. 87(4): p. 2033-2036.
[91] Amin, K.R. and A. Bid, High-performance sensors based on resistance fluctuations of single-layer-graphene transistors. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 2015. 7(35): p. 19825-19830.
[92] Dettlaff, A., et al., Electrochemical determination of nitroaromatic explosives at boron-doped diamond/graphene nanowall electrodes: 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene and 2, 4, 6-trinitroanisole in liquid effluents. Journal of hazardous materials, 2020. 387: p. 121672.
[93] Vernot, E., et al., Long-term inhalation toxicity of hydrazine. Toxicological Sciences, 1985. 5(6part1): p. 1050-1064.
[94] Vellaichamy, B., P. Periakaruppan, and S.K. Ponnaiah, A new in-situ synthesized ternary CuNPs-PANI-GO nano composite for selective detection of carcinogenic hydrazine. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2017. 245: p. 156-165.
[95] Vinodha, G., P. Shima, and L. Cindrella, Mesoporous magnetite nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide nanosheets for efficient electrochemical detection of hydrazine. Journal of materials science, 2019. 54(5): p. 4073-4088.
[96] Martín, A., et al., Graphene nanoribbon-based electrochemical sensors on screen-printed platforms. Electrochimica Acta, 2015. 172: p. 2-6.
[97] Yang, Z., et al., One-pot synthesis of Fe 3 O 4/polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanocomposites for electrochemical sensing of hydrazine. Microchimica Acta, 2017. 184(7): p. 2219-2226.
[98] Mirvish, S.S., Role of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) and N-nitrosation in etiology of gastric, esophageal, nasopharyngeal and bladder cancer and contribution to cancer of known exposures to NOC. Cancer letters, 1995. 93(1): p. 17-48.
[99] Jaiswal, N., et al., Highly sensitive amperometric sensing of nitrite utilizing bulk-modified MnO2 decorated Graphene oxide nanocomposite screen-printed electrodes. Electrochimica Acta, 2017. 227: p. 255-266.
[100] Fu, L., et al., Carbon nanotube and graphene oxide directed electrochemical synthesis of silver dendrites. Rsc Advances, 2014. 4(75): p. 39645-39650.
[101] Li, L., et al., Quantitative detection of nitrite with N-doped graphene quantum dots decorated N-doped carbon nanofibers composite-based electrochemical sensor. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2017. 252: p. 17-23.
[102] Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, H. and E. Rahimpour, Utilizing of Ag@ AgCl@ graphene oxide@ Fe3O4 nanocomposite as a magnetic plasmonic nanophotocatalyst in light-initiated H2O2 generation and chemiluminescence detection of nitrite. Talanta, 2015. 144: p. 769-777.
[103] Fang, Y., et al., Simple one-pot preparation of chitosan-reduced graphene oxide-Au nanoparticles hybrids for glucose sensing. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2015. 221: p. 265-272.
[104] Bai, W., Q. Sheng, and J. Zheng, Morphology controlled synthesis of platinum nanoparticles performed on the surface of graphene oxide using a gas–liquid interfacial reaction and its application for high-performance electrochemical sensing. Analyst, 2016. 141(14): p. 4349-4358.
[105] Li, B.-Q., et al., An electrochemical sensor for sensitive determination of nitrites based on Ag-Fe 3 O 4-graphene oxide magnetic nanocomposites. Chemical Papers, 2015. 69(7): p. 911-920.
[106] Rao, D., Q. Sheng, and J. Zheng, Self-assembly preparation of gold nanoparticle decorated 1-pyrenemethylamine functionalized graphene oxide–carbon nanotube composites for highly sensitive detection of nitrite. Analytical Methods, 2016. 8(24): p. 4926-4933.
[107] Zhang, S., Q. Sheng, and J. Zheng, Synthesis of Au nanoparticles dispersed on halloysite nanotubes–reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and their application for electrochemical sensing of nitrites. New Journal of Chemistry, 2016. 40(11): p. 9672-9678.
[108] Rostami, M., et al., Nanocomposite of magnetic nanoparticles/graphene oxide decorated with acetic acid moieties on glassy carbon electrode: A facile method to detect nitrite concentration. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2019. 847: p. 113239.
[109] Zhang, D., et al., Direct electrodeposion of reduced graphene oxide and dendritic copper nanoclusters on glassy carbon electrode for electrochemical detection of nitrite. Electrochimica Acta, 2013. 107: p. 656-663.
[110] Yu, H., R. Li, and K.-l. Song, Amperometric determination of nitrite by using a nanocomposite prepared from gold nanoparticles, reduced graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Microchimica Acta, 2019. 186(9): p. 624.
[111] Radhakrishnan, S., et al., A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for nitrite detection based on Fe2O3 nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2014. 148: p. 22-28.
[112] Wang, S., et al., Protonated carbon nitride induced hierarchically ordered Fe2O3/HC3N4/rGO architecture with enhanced electrochemical sensing of nitrite. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2018. 260: p. 490-498.
[113] Haldorai, Y., et al., An enzyme-free electrochemical sensor based on reduced graphene oxide/Co3O4 nanospindle composite for sensitive detection of nitrite. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2016. 227: p. 92-99.
[114] Zhao, Z., et al., Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Co3O4-rGO/CNTs composites towards highly sensitive nitrite detection. Applied Surface Science, 2019. 485: p. 274-282.
[115] Balasubramanian, P., et al., A single-step electrochemical preparation of cadmium sulfide anchored erGO/β-CD modified screen-printed carbon electrode for sensitive and selective detection of nitrite. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 2019. 166(8): p. B690-B696.
[116] Zainudin, N., M.M. Yusoff, and K.F. Chong. A promising electrochemical sensing platform based on a graphene nanomaterials for sensitive sulfite determination. in 2015 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (ICoBE). 2015. IEEE.
[117] Li, X.-R., et al., Potassium-doped graphene for simultaneous determination of nitrite and sulfite in polluted water. Electrochemistry communications, 2012. 20: p. 109-112.
[118] Beitollahi, H., S. Tajik, and P. Biparva, Electrochemical determination of sulfite and phenol using a carbon paste electrode modified with ionic liquids and graphene nanosheets: application to determination of sulfite and phenol in real samples. Measurement, 2014. 56: p. 170-177.
[119] Gao, W., et al., New insights into the structure and reduction of graphite oxide. Nature chemistry, 2009. 1(5): p. 403.
[120] Eda, G., G. Fanchini, and M. Chhowalla, Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material. Nature nanotechnology, 2008. 3(5): p. 270-274.
[121] Shi, Y. and L.-J. Li, Chemically modified graphene: flame retardant or fuel for combustion? Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2011. 21(10): p. 3277-3279.
[122] Kim, J., et al., Wearable biosensors for healthcare monitoring. Nature biotechnology, 2019. 37(4): p. 389-406.
[123] Ray, T.R., et al., Bio-integrated wearable systems: A comprehensive review. Chemical reviews, 2019. 119(8): p. 5461-5533.
[124] Tricoli, A., N. Nasiri, and S. De, Wearable and miniaturized sensor technologies for personalized and preventive medicine. Advanced Functional Materials, 2017. 27(15): p. 1605271.
[125] HyungáCheong, W., J. HyebáSong, and J. JoonáKim, Wearable, wireless gas sensors using highly stretchable and transparent structures of nanowires and graphene. Nanoscale, 2016. 8(20): p. 10591-10597.
[126] Su, P.-G. and H.-C. Shieh, Flexible NO2 sensors fabricated by layer-by-layer covalent anchoring and in situ reduction of graphene oxide. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2014. 190: p. 865-872.
[127] Li, D., et al., When biomolecules meet graphene: from molecular level interactions to material design and applications. Nanoscale, 2016. 8(47): p. 19491-19509.
[128] Said, K., et al., Fabrication and characterization of graphite oxide–nanoparticle composite based field effect transistors for non-enzymatic glucose sensor applications. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2017. 694: p. 1061-1066.
[129] Lee, D.-H., et al., Highly selective organic transistor biosensor with inkjet printed graphene oxide support system. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2017. 5(19): p. 3580-3585.
[130] Song, Y., et al., A simple electrochemical biosensor based on AuNPs/MPS/Au electrode sensing layer for monitoring carbamate pesticides in real samples. J Hazard Mater, 2016. 304: p. 103-9.