Tristan Technologies was first created in 1991 by former principals of San Diego superconducting companies Biomagnetic Technologies (BTi) and S.H.E. Corporation. Tristan Technologies was subsequently sold to ‘Conductus’, Sunnyvale, in 1993, and became its Instrument & Systems Division in San Diego. This division closed in July 1997, and several employees reformed Tristan Technologies in August 1997. As part of the reformation, Tristan acquired from Conductus the rights to the iMAG® product line and associated product lines, and continues to manufacture the iMAG® series LTS and HTS SQUID systems as standard products and as parts of custom cryogenic measurement systems.
The SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) is the world’s most sensitive magnetic flux detector. It is often referred to as a cryogenic or superconducting magnetometer, and indeed the measurement of extremely small magnetic fields is one of its most important applications. However, the scope of the SQUID’s usefulness extends far beyond simple field measurements. Almost any low frequency electric or magnetic signal that can be converted into a corresponding magnetic flux signal will be detected at a greater level of sensitivity with a SQUID than with any other instrument. Applications of SQUID systems have ranged from the investigation of magnetic and electronic properties of materials to the search for geothermal energy sources, from studies of paleomagnetism to biomagnetic research and from the measurement of millikelvin temperatures to the detection and characterization of subsurface magnetic structures on land and at sea.
Tristan’s strength is in the design and manufacture of laboratory and custom SQUID systems. Tristan’s standard product line of SQUID instrumentation is the widest available for scientific laboratory applications. Custom SQUID magnetometers supplied by Tristan personnel include the first commercial high temperature SQUID magnetometer and gradiometer, liquid helium scanning SQUID microscopes with 2 µm resolution (the world’s first magnetic microscope) and 100+ channel biomagnetometers for medical applications.
Applied Physics Systems is a leading manufacturer of sensors and systems used in oil field, industrial and scientific applications. Our primary products are directional sensors, magnetometers and downhole drilling sensors and electronics. We design and engineer all of the products we supply.
In addition to our standard products, we conduct contract research for other organizations in our fields of expertise. We can design and build modified versions of our instruments as well as completely new instruments to solve your needs for magnetic field measurement, orientation sensors, steering tools, and clip-on milliammeters.
Applied Physics Systems was founded in 1976 by Bill Goodman and for over thirty five years has developed expertise in the design and manufacture of magnetometer sensors. In the last fifteen years, we have developed and expanded our products for drilling systems, electrical, mechanical, and computer software systems.
Applied Physics Systems is a leader in the manufacture of magnetic field measuring equipment, including Fluxgate Magnetometers, DC SQUID Magnetometers and Clip-on Milliammeters. We also manufacture a broad line of Angular Orientation measuring sensors including Steering Sensors for Directional Drilling applications and miniaturized sensors for general purpose use.
Applied Physics Systems is also a world leader in the design and production of Rock Magnetometer systems and accessories. These systems are produced in partnership with William S. Goree, Inc. and are sold under the 2G Enterprises name. 2G has its own web site with complete information on the instruments offered: http://www.2GEnterprises.com.
Angstrom Engineering was founded in 1992 and has quickly grown into a unique international company with a reputation for providing high-quality machines and unparalleled customer service. Our PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition), and CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) systems are created by our skilled and experienced engineering team. We are proud to manufacture the tools that allow a wide variety of researchers and development teams in world-class labs across the globe to innovate new technologies.
All of our products are designed and assembled on-site by our engineers, technologists, and technicians. We provide ready access to our engineering team, so you can speak directly to someone with many years of experience if you need help to identify the correct system for your lab, have any questions or need support with your system at any point after purchase.
The PVD, CVD and other vacuum systems created by Angstrom Engineering offer a wide variety of applications for thin film deposition technology, 2D material research such as graphene and nanotubes, as well as plant growth, and space simulation.
Our partners do research and technology development in everything from renewable energy, organic electronics, and flat panel displays, to magnetic storage, decorative coatings, photonics, spintronics, quantum dots, low and high orbit space equipment, and various optical and tribological applications.
Freiberg Instruments is now one of the world’s fastest growing, young and dynamic analytical instrumentation companies with products covering a broad spectrum of applications in fields/industries like Semiconductor, Microelectronics, Photovoltaic, Dosimetry, Medical Research, Luminescence Dating, X-ray diffraction, Material Research and Electron Spin Resonance.
Established in 2005 as an university spin off from TU Bergakademie – The University of Resources, Freiberg Instruments devoted the first few years to develop and test a whole family of fast, nondestructive, electrical characterization tools under production conditions, measuring parameters like minority carrier lifetime, photoconductivity and resistivity.
MDP Microwave-Detected Photoconductivity:
The advanced method MDP is well suited for both, defect investigation by e.g. injection dependent minority carrier lifetime measurements, as well as mapping of wafers or even ingots for inline metrology. MDP has a variety of advantages in sensitivity, speed and resolution.
MD-PICTS is a modification of MDP, where temperature dependent measurements of the defect part of the transient are accomplished. This allows to do a spatial resolved defect characterization.
Stresstech Group has since 1983 from the foundation of American Stress Technologies, Inc. served metal industry all over the world with solutions and high-tech instruments for non-destructive testing of the quality of components. Many leading edge companies in automobile and aircraft industry have already chosen Stresstech Group as their partner in quality control.
Stresstech Group´s main products are Barkhausen Noise analyzers, sensors and custom inspection stands, X-ray Diffraction analyzers and inspection stands, and residual stress testing instrument based on hole-drilling. Several different applications use Barkhausen Noise to study magnetic properties and thus the presence or absence of material defects and residual stress levels in various components like gears, bearings, camshafts, crankshafts, universal joints, piston pins, etc. X-ray analyzers use X-ray diffraction to measure residual stresses and retained austenite contents. The Prism system is based on hole-drilling technique for measuring residual stresses. Stresstech Group provides also custom inspection stands for shop floor quality control.
Stresstech Oy (1984) in Finland, American Stress Technologies, Inc. (AST)(1983) in USA, Stresstech GmbH (1999) in Germany and Stresstech Bharat Pvt. Ltd. (2010) in India form the Stresstech Group. Being in close contact with each other and with 30 years of experience of quality control, the Group can quickly respond to market demands and individual requests of customers.
AXIC, Inc. was founded in 1980 as a company to develop surface science equipment for the semiconductor, electronics, and general scientific community. Initial developments focused on x-ray and electron beam analysis of surfaces for compositional and film thickness analysis. These developments lead to the introduction of a stand alone x-ray fluorescence unit which was easily operated by fab personnel for the measurement of film composition and thickness. AXIC, Inc. now produces 3 XRF systems for coatings analysis in both development and production applications for the semiconductor, magnetic, and superconductor industries.
In 1992, AXIC entered the market of producing laser based reflectometers for the measurement of film thickness, index of refraction, and film absorption properties of transparent/translucent films for the semiconductor, optical and magnetics industries.
Shortly after, AXIC commenced the manufacture of plasma tools for cleaning, photoresist stripping, reactive ion etch (RIE), and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Today these offerings include the MultiMode HF8, PlasmaStar, and BenchMark 800-II. Units are ideally suited for research and development and small scale productions. The plasma tools can be configured in various ways to meet the end users’ specific requirements.
NanoScan AG commercializes nanotechnology by developing new products, solutions and application segments as well as by optimizing current methods. Its purpose is to provide the global market with high-resolution scanning probe microscopes fulfilling present and future analytical needs on nanometer-sized surface structures.
The formation of NanoScan began in 2003, when the initiators at the Institute of Physics at the University of Basel developed a prototype of their high-resolution Magnetic Force Microscope capable of enhancing the resolution by a factor of 10 compared to other available microscopes. The prototype instrument was sold to Seagate Technology, a well-known manufacturer of hard disc drives, in 2003 and operates to their full satisfaction.
As the winner of the Swiss Technology Award 2003, NanoScan (formerly SwissProbe) has proved its ability to venture into new dimensions of nanotechnology.
NanoScan benefits from its in-depth knowledge in nanotechnology, the synergies between its partners in science and industry and the close collaboration with the research group of the Institute of Physics at the University of Basel, a team with long-standing expertise in the field of magnetic force microscopy. NanoScan’s PPMS®-AFM was engineered in collaboration with Empa, the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Research and Testing.
NanoScan provides a special service for interested customers. Samples may be submitted for test measurements in order to prove the performance of the hr-MFM. The customer will receive prompt delivery of two images of the magnetic patterns measured.
Bartington Instruments designs and manufactures high precision fluxgate magnetometers, gradiometers, magnetic susceptibility instruments and associated data processing equipment.
The company was founded in 1985, and in the 30 years since we have built up a vast body of experience that lets us manufacture sensors with maximised sensitivity, an absolute minimum of noise, wide bandwidth and low power consumption. Our fluxgates are manufactured to fulfil each order on our premises.
Our Research and Development team undertakes development contracts for a number of private and government organisations. We employ over 60 people in product manufacture, research and development, sales, marketing and administration.
Around 80% of our products are exported worldwide to customers working in the sectors of defence, aerospace, geophysics, industry, physics and archaeology, and oil and mineral exploration companies.
ElektroPhysik is one of the leading manufacturers of measuring instruments used for advancing surface technology, research and quality control. Being a pioneer in the field of non-destructive coating thickness measurement, ElektroPhysik, in cooperation with national and international standardizing institutes and universities has successfully advanced new product developments along with international standardization of the coating thickness measurement.
ElektroPhysik privately held company owned and managed by the Steingroever family. It is headquarters are in Köln Germany near the famous Rein River. ElektroPhysik still occupies the original building though it has gone through many expansions over the years to facilitate growth.
ElektroPhysik maintains branch offices including the U.S.A. and is represented by distributors and agents globally in almost every country in the world. It is this network and partnerships that enable ElektroPhysik to service its customers and provide the support required in today’s competitive global marketplace.
The first coating thickness testing gauge was developed by Dr. Steingroever. Utilizing the Magnetic Attraction principle, it was called the MikroTest (still manufactured today and even available in digital display format, it probably remains the most utilized coating thickness testing device utilized, even today) . Magnetic Attraction is a very reliable technique for measuring coatings however its only drawback is that it only works with coatings applied over ferrous materials such as steel and iron.
However, the Magnetic Attraction principle paved the way for the development of analog devices. First using Eddy Current and then later Magnetic Induction, these devices expanded coating thickness testing beyond just corrosion control.
Today all three of these principles are used to non-destructively measure a variety of coatings. Magnetic Attraction is the measuring principle used in the MikroTest, PenTest and MiniPen by ElektroPhysik.
Magnetic Induction is the measuring principle of choice for ferrous metal substrate application while the Eddy Current principle is the measuring principle of choice for non-ferrous metal substrate applications.
Both of these measuring principles are found in the MiniTest family of gauges as well as the eXacto by ElektroPhysik.
More recently ElektroPhysik developed yet another measuring principle primarily for non-metal substrate applications such plastic and wood. The QuintSonic utilizes a high level ultrasound approach which has enabled measurements to be conducted on these types of substrates non-destructively.
On April 20, 2007 ElektroPhysik launched a new model, the MiniTest 700 Series with SIDSP® digital sensor technology.
SIDSP® is an ElektroPhysik exclusive which took years of research and development. SIDSP® stands for Sensor Integrated Digital Signal Processing and the way that works is that entire coating thickness measurement is processed in the sensor at the point of measurement. SIDSP® is unlike previous conventional techniques where an analog signal was generated at the sensor and then that signal would be sent to a host gauge to processing. The vulnerability with that technique was that it was susceptible to environmental influences such as strong electro-magnetic fields and other signal disturbances that could affect the analog signal and therefore the reading.
Mad City Labs, Inc nanopositioning systems, micropositioning systems, instrument solutions, and piezoactuators are used for a variety of applications. Follow the links below to learn more about how Mad City Labs systems are used in each application area.
Scanning Probe Microscopy