Bioceramics, Carbonaceous Composite and its Biomedical Applications
Sheeba Nuzhat Khan, Fazal-Ur-Rehman
Biomaterial is a material that interacts with human tissue and body fluids to treat, improve, or replace anatomical element(s) of the human body. Biological materials such as human bone allograft, are considered to be biomaterials and they are used in many cases in orthopedic surgery. Due to compatibility of carbonaceous materials with bone and other tissue and the similarity of the mechanical properties of carbon to bone, carbonaceous composite is used for orthopedic implants. Nowadays, to obtain the most desirable clinical performance of the implants the mechanically superior metals are combined with ceramics and polymers of excellent biocompatibility and biofunctionality. Among ceramic/ceramic, ceramic/polymer and ceramic/metal composites, ceramic/ceramic composites enjoy superiority due to their similarity with bone minerals, exhibiting biocompatibility and ability to be shaped into a definite size. Among bioceramics alumina, ziconia and carbon revealed their blood compatibility, no tissue reaction and nontoxicity to cells, but none of the above three-bioinert ceramics exhibited bonding with the bone. However, this bioactivity of the bioinert ceramics can be achieved by forming composites with bioactive ceramics. Bioglass and glass ceramics are nontoxic and chemically bond to bone, elicit osteoinductive property. Calcium phosphate ceramics are nontoxic to tissues, and have bioresorption and osteoinductive property.
Ceramic, Polymer, Carbonaceous Composites, Metal Composites, Alumina, Tissues
Published online 11/20/2018, 34 pages
Part of the book on Carbonaceous Composite Materials
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