Applications of Nanoparticles in Biomedicine



Applications of Nanoparticles in Biomedicine

Bichitra Nandi Ganguly

Understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and bio-systems is essential for the effective utilization of these materials in biomedicine. A wide variety of nanoparticle surface structures have been developed for imaging, sensing, and drug delivery applications. In this research highlight, advances in tailoring nanoparticle interfaces for implementation in nanomedicine have been discussed. Nanoparticles exhibit unique physical properties such that when their size range commensurate with bio-molecular and cellular systems, their features make them attractive materials for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Specifically designed nanoparticle monolayer structures can impart enhanced cellular internalization ability, noncytotoxicity and improved payload binding capacity necessary for effective intracellular delivery. Similarly, surface functionality can be tuned to provide the selective or specific recognition required for bio-sensing. Tailoring particle interfaces is a challenging task, chemists have a well-equipped toolbox to provide functionality through synthesis. Using different strategies, nanoparticles have been functionalized with a variety of ligands such as small molecules, surfactants, dendrimers, polymers, and bio-molecules. Biomolecule-conjugated nanoparticles can impart desired properties such as specific recognition or biocompatibility. The ease of such surface conjugation allows material scientists to create the desired functionalities for their future application in clinics. In this article different categories of nanoparticles viz. metal oxide, plasmonic metallic nanoparticles, surface coroneted nanoparticles etc. and their involvement in bio-application have been discussed.

Biomedicine, Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications, Surface Functionality, Drug-Delivery

Published online 7/1/2018, 18 pages


Part of the book on Nanomaterials in Bio-Medical Applications

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