Adsorption of p-chlorophenol on microporous carbon by microwave activation: isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics studies

$20.00

Adsorption of p-chlorophenol on microporous carbon by microwave activation: isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics studies

Muthanna J. Ahmeda, Samar K. Theydanb

Equilibrium isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of p-chlorophenol (PCP) adsorption on microporous activated carbon have been investigated. Siris seed pods (SSP), an agricultural solid waste, were utilised as a precursor for preparation of activated carbon (KAC) by microwave induced KOH activation. The yield, surface area, micropores volume, and mesopores volume of KAC were 22.48 %, 1824.88 m2/g, 0.645 cm3/g, and 0.137 cm3/g, respectively. The analysis of pore structure of KAC showed that KOH activation exhibited 82.48% micropores content. The adsorption behaviour was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, showing a monolayer adsorption capacity of 88.32 and 338.87 mg/g on SSP and KAC, respectively. The investigation of adsorption kinetics indicated that the process closely follows the model of pseudo-second order. Results of thermodynamic studies showed exothermic and spontaneous natures of PCP adsorption under-examined conditions.

Keywords
Activated Carbon, Microwave, Adsorption, Seed Pods Biomass, P-Chlorophenol

Published online 4/25/2017, 16 pages
Copyright © 2016 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: Muthanna J. Ahmeda, Samar K. Theydanb, ‘Adsorption of p-chlorophenol on microporous carbon by microwave activation: isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics studies’, Materials Research Foundations, Vol. 15, pp 155-170, 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21741/9781945291333-6

The article was published as article 6 of the book Applications of Adsorption and Ion Exchange Chromatography in Waste Water Treatment

References
[1] P.S. Majumder, S.K. Gupta, Degradation of 4-chlorophenol in UASB reactor under methanogenic conditions, Bioresour. Technol., 99 (2008) 4169–4177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.08.062
[2] O. Hamdaoui, E. Naffrechoux, Sonochemical and photosonochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol in aqueous media. Ultrasonics Sonochem., 15 (2008) 981–987 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2008.03.011
[3] P. Wongwisate, S. Chavadej, E. Gulari, T. Sreethawong, P. Rangsunvigit, Effects of monometallic and bimetallic Au-Ag supported on sol-gel TiO2 on photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol and its intermediates, Desalination 272 (2011) 154-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.01.016
[4] H. Wang, Z.Y. Bian, D.Z. Sun, Degradation mechanism of 4-chlorophenol with electrogenerated hydrogen peroxide on a Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode, Water Science and Technol., 63 (2011) 484-490. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2011.247
[5] K. Naeem, F. Ouyang, Influence of supports on photocatalytic degradation of phenol and 4-chlorophenol in aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide, J. Environm. Sci., 25 (2013) 399–404. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(12)60055-2
[6] X. Duan, L. Tian, W. Liu, L. Chang, Study on electrochemical oxidation of 4-Chlorophenol on a vitreous carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry, Electrochimica Acta 94 (2013) 192– 197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2013.01.151
[7] AL-Othman ZA, Inamuddin, Naushad M (2011) Adsorption thermodynamics of trichloroacetic acid herbicide on polypyrrole Th(IV) phosphate composite cation-exchanger. Chem Eng J 169:38–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.02.046
[8] J. Su, S. Lin, Z. Chen, M. Megharaj, R. Naidu, Dechlorination of p-chlorophenol from aqueous solution using bentonite supported Fe/Pd nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and kinetics, Desalination, 280 (2011) 167–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.06.067
[9] Y. Pi, L. Zhang, J. Wang, The formation and influence of hydrogen peroxide during ozonation of para-chlorophenol, J. Hazard. Mater., 141 (2007) 707–712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.07.032
[10] C. Catrinescu, D. Arsene, C. Teodosiu, Catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of para-chlorophenol over Al/Fe pillared clays (AlFePILCs) prepared from different host clays, Applied Catalysis B: Environm., 101 (2011) 451–460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2010.10.015
[11] Naushad M, Ahamad T, Sharma G, et al (2016) Synthesis and characterization of a new starch/SnO2 nanocomposite for efficient adsorption of toxic Hg2+ metal ion. Chem Eng J 300:306–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.04.084
[12] H.S. Wahab, T. Bredow, S.M. Aliwi, A computational study on the adsorption and ring cleavage of para-chlorophenol on anatase TiO2 surface, Surface Sci., 603 (2009) 664–669. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susc.2009.01.001
[13] M.S. Bilgili, Adsorption of 4-chlorophenol from aqueous solutions by xad-4 resin: Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic analysis, J. Hazard. Mater., B137 (2006) 157–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.01.005
[14] C. Pa˘curariu, G. Mihoc, A. Popa, S.G. Muntean, R. Ianos, Adsorption of phenol and p-chlorophenol from aqueous solutions on poly (styrene-co-divinylbenzene) functionalized, Chem. Eng. J., 222 (2013) 218–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.02.060
[15] V.M. Monsalvo, A.F. Mohedano, J.J. Rodriguez, Adsorption of 4-chlorophenol by inexpensive sewage sludge-based adsorbents, Chem. Eng. Research and design, 90 (2012) 1807–1814. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2012.03.018
[16] J.M. Li, X.G. Meng, C.W. Hu, J. Du, Adsorption of phenol, p-chlorophenol and p-nitrophenol onto functional chitosan, Bioresour. Technol., 100 (2009) 1168–1173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.09.015
[17] A. Kuleyin, Removal of phenol and 4-chlorophenol by surfactant-modified natural zeolite, J. Hazard. Mater., 144 (2007) 307–315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.10.036
[18] B. Koumanova, P. Peeva-Antova, Adsorption of p-chlorophenol from aqueous solutions on bentonite and perlite, J. Hazard. Mater., A90 (2002) 229–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(01)00365-X
[19] F. Derbyshire, M. Jagtoyen, R. Andrews, A. Rao, I. Martin-Gullon, E. Grulke, Carbon materials in environmental application. In: L.R. Radovic, ed., Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, 27, Marcel Dekker, New York. 2001, pp. 1–66.
[20] C.O. Ania, J.B. Parra, J.A. Menéndez, J.J. Pis, Effect of microwave and conventional regeneration on the microporous and mesoporous network and on the adsorptive capacity of activated carbons, Microporous and Mesoporous Mater., 85 (2005) 7–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2005.06.013
[21] R.L. Tseng, S.K. Tseng, Pore structure and adsorption performance of the KOH-activated carbons prepared from corncob, J. Colloid and Interface Sci., 287 (2005) 428-437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2005.02.033
[22] R.L. Tseng, F.C. Wu, Analyzing a liquid-solid phase counter current two- and three- stage adsorption process with the Freundlich equation, J. Hazard. Mater., 162 (2009) 237-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.05.031
[23] V.M. Monsalvo, A.F. Mohedano, J.J. Rodriguez, Activated carbons from sewage sludge application to aqueous-phase adsorption of 4-chlorophenol, Desalination, 277 (2011) 377-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.04.059
[24] B.H. Hameed, L.H. Chin, S. Rengaraj, Adsorption of 4-chloropenol onto activated carbon prepared from rattan sawdust, Desalination, 225 (2008) 185-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.04.095
[25] V.K. Gupta, S.K. Srivastava, R. Tyagi, Design Parameters for the treatment of phenolic wastes by carbon column obtained from fertilizer waste material, Water Res., 34 (2000) 1543-1550. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(99)00322-X
[26] N. Fernandez, E. Chacin, C. Garcia, N. Alastre, F. Leal, C.F. Forster, The use of seed pods from Albizia lebbeck for the removal of alkyl benzene sulphonates from aqueous solutions, Process Biochem., 31 (1996) 383-387. https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-9592(95)00074-7
[27] H.O. Adubiaro, O. Olaofe, E.T. Akintayo, Chemical composition, calcium, zinc and phytate interrelationships in Albizia lebbeck and Daniella Oliveri seeds, Elect. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem., 10 (2011) 2523-2530.
[28] M.J. Ahmed, S.K. Theydan, Adsorption of p-chlorophenol onto microporous activated carbon from Albizia lebbeck seed pods by one-step microwave assisted activation, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 100 (2013) 253-260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2013.01.008
[29] ASTM standard, standard test method for total ash content of activated carbon, Designation D2866-94; 2000.
[30] F.A. Adekola, H.I. Adegoke, Adsorption of blue-dye on activated carbons produced from Rice Husk, Coconut Shell and Coconut Coir pitch, Ife J. Sci., 7(1) (2005) 151-157. https://doi.org/10.4314/ijs.v7i1.32169
[31] S. Brunauer, P.H. Emmett, E. Teller, Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 60 (1938) 309-319. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01269a023
[32] S.J. Gregg and K.S.W. Sing, Adsorption, surface area and porosity, London, Academic Press., 1966.
[33] C. Lastoskie, K.E. Gubbins, N. Quirke, pore size distribution analysis of microporous carbons: a density functional theory approach, J. Phys. Chem., 97 (1993) 4786-4796. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100120a035
[34] I. Langmuir, The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 38 (1916) 2221-2295. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja02268a002
[35] H.M.F. Freundlich, Über die adsorption in lösungen, Z. Phys. Chem., 57 (1906) 385-470.
[36] M.J. Temkin and V. Phyzev, Recent modifications to Langmuir isotherms, Acta Physiochim, USSR 12 (1940) 217-222.
[37] S. Langergen and B.K. Svenska, Zur theorie der sogenannten adsoption geloester stoffe, Veteruskapsakad Handlingar, 24 (1898) 1-39.
[38] Y.S. Ho and G. Mckay, Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes, Process Biochem., 34 (1999) 451-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(98)00112-5
[39] W.J. Weber and J.C. Morris, Kinetics of adsorption on carbon from solution, J. Saint. Eng. Div. Am. Soc. Civil Eng., 89 (1963) 31-60.
[40] L.S. Luo, Preparation of activated carbon from solidago Canadensis and its adsorption performance for Cd(II), M.SC. Thesis, China, 2012.
[41] B. Xing, C. Zhang, L. Chen, G. Huang, Preparation of activated carbon from lignite for electrochemical capacitors by microwave and electrical furnace heating, Advanced Mater. Res., 194-196 (2011) 2472-2479. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.194-196.2472
[42] K.Y. Foo, B.H. Hameed, Microwave-assisted preparation and adsorption performance of activated carbon from biodiesel industry solid residue: influence of operational parameters, Bioresour. Technol., 103 (2012) 398-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.116
[43] K.Y. Foo, B.H. Hameed, Coconut husk derived activated carbon via microwave induced activation: effects of activation agents, preparation parameters, and adsorption performance, Chem. Eng. J., 184 (2012) 57-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.12.084
[44] K.Y. Foo, B.H. Hameed, Adsorption characteristics of industrial solid waste derived activated carbon prepared by microwave heating for methylene blue, Fuel Processing Tehnol., 99 (2012) 103-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2012.01.031
[45] K.Y. Foo, B.H. Hameed, Porous structure and adsorptive properties of pineapple based activated carbons prepared via microwave assisted KOH and K2CO3 activation, Microporous and Mesoporous Mater., 148 (20120 191-195.
[46] K.Y. Foo, B.H. Hameed, Utilization of rice husks as a feedstock for preparation of activated carbon by microwave induced KOH and K2CO3 activation, Bioresour. Technol., 102 (2011) 9814-9817. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.07.102
[47] F.C. Wu, P.H. Wu, R.L. Tseng, R.S. Juang, Preparation of novel activated carbons from H2SO4-Pretreated corncob hulls with KOH activation for quick adsorption of dye and 4-chlorophenol, J. Environm. Manage., 92 (2011) 708-713 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.10.003
[48] R.L. Tseng, K.T. Wu, F.C. Wu, R.S. Juang, Kinetic studies on the adsorption of phenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol from water using activated carbons, J. Environ. Manage., 91 (2010) 2208-2214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.05.018
[49] Z. Belala, M. Jeguirim, M. Belhachemi, F. Addoun, G. Trouve, Biosorption of basic dye from aqueous solution by date stones and palm-trees waste: kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies, Desalination, 271 (2011) 80-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2010.12.009
[50] V.M. Monsalvo, A.F. Mohedano, J.J. Rodriguez, Adsorption of 4-chlorophenol by inexpensive sewage sludge-based adsorbents, Chem. Eng. Res. and design 90 (2012) 1807-1814. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2012.03.018

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Only logged in customers who have purchased this product may leave a review.