3D Residual Stresses in Selective Laser Melted Hastelloy X

Article PDF

3D Residual Stresses in Selective Laser Melted Hastelloy X

J. Saarimäki, M. Lundberg, J.J. Moverare, H. Brodin

download PDF

Abstract. 3D residual stresses in as manufactured EOS NickelAlloy HX, produced by laser powder bed additive manufacturing, are analysed on the surface closest to the build-plate. Due to the severe thermal gradient produced during the melting and solidification process, profound amounts of thermal strains are generated. Which can result in unwanted geometrical distortion and effect the mechanical properties of the manufactured component. Measurements were performed using a four-circle goniometer Seifert X-ray machine, equipped with a linear sensitive detector and a Cr-tube. Evaluation of the residual stresses was conducted using sin2Ψ method of the Ni {220} diffraction peak, together with material removal technique to obtain in-depth profiles. An analysis of the material is reported. The analysis reveals unwanted residual stresses, and a complicated non-uniform grain structure containing large grains with multiple low angle grain boundaries together with nano-sized grains. Grains are to a large extent, not equiaxed, but rather elongated.

Keywords
Triaxial Stress, SLM, HX

Published online 12/22/2016, 6 pages
Copyright © 2016 by the author(s)
Published under license by Materials Research Forum LLC., Millersville PA, USA

Citation: J. Saarimäki, M. Lundberg, J.J. Moverare, H. Brodin, ‘3D Residual Stresses in Selective Laser Melted Hastelloy X’, Materials Research Proceedings, Vol. 2, pp 73-78, 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21741/9781945291173-13

The article was published as article 13 of the book Residual Stresses 2016

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

References
[1] J. Chu, S. Engelbrecht, G. Graf, D.W. Rosen, A Comparison of Synthesis Methods for Cellular Structures with Application to Additive Manufacturing, Rapid Prototyp. J. 16 (2010) 275–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13552541080000501
[2] D.W. Rosen, Computer-Aided Design for Additive Manufacturing of Cellular Structures, Comput. Aided. Des. Appl. 4 (2007) 585–594. doi:10.1080/16864360.2007.10738493.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16864360.2007.10738493
[3] G. Marchelli, R. Prabhakar, D. Storti, M. Ganter, The guide to glass 3D printing: developments, methods, diagnostics and results, Rapid Prototyp. J. 17 (2011) 187–194.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13552541111124761
[4] S. Das, J.J. Beaman, M. Wohlert, D.L. Bourell, Direct laser freeform fabrication of high performance metal components The authors, Rapid Prototyp. J. 4 (1998) 112–117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13552549810222939
[5] M. Agarwala, D. Bourell, J. Beaman, H. Marcus, J. Barlow, Direct selective laser sintering of metals, Rapid Prototyp. J. 1 (1995) 26–36. doi:10.1108/13552549510078113.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13552549510078113
[6] P.J. Withers, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, Residual stress. Part 2 – Nature and origins, Mater. Sci. Technol. 17 (2001) 366–375. doi:10.1179/026708301101510087.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/026708301101510087
[7] P. Mercelis, J.-P. Kruth, Residual stresses in selective laser sintering and selective laser melting, Rapid Prototyp. J. 12 (2006) 254–265. doi:10.1108/13552540610707013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13552540610707013
[8] C. Casavola, S.L. Campanelli, C. Pappalettere, Preliminary investigation on distribution of residual stress generated by the selective laser melting process, J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des. 44 (2009) 93–104. doi:10.1243/03093247JSA464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1243/03093247JSA464
[9] H. Brodin, O. Andersson, S. Johansson, Mechanical Behaviour and Microstructure Correlation in a Selective Laser Melted Superalloy, in: ASME Turbo Expo 2013 Turbine Tech. Conf. Expo., San Antonio, Texas, USA, 2013. doi:10.1115/GT2013-95878.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/GT2013-95878
[10] H. Dölle, The influence of multiaxial stress states, stress gradients and elastic anisotropy on the evaluation of (Residual) stresses by X-rays, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 12 (1979) 489–501.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S0021889879013169
[11] J. Saarimäki, The mechanical properties of lattice truss structures with load- bearing shells made of selectively laser melted Hastelloy XTM, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-41320.
[12] H.A. Canistraro, E.H. Jordan, S. Shixiang, L.H. Favrow, F.A. Reed, Elastic Constants of Single Crystal Hastelloy X at Elevated Temperatures, Trans. ASME. 120 (1998) 242–247. doi:10.1115/1.2812350.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2812350
[13] V.M. Hauk, R.W.M. Oudelhoven, G.J.H. Vaessen, The state of residual stress in the near surface region of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials after grinding, Metall. Trans. A. 13 (1982) 1239–1244. doi:10.1007/BF02645507.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02645507
[14] H. Brodin, J. Saarimäki, Mechanical properties of lattice truss structures made of a selective laser melted superalloy, in: 13th Int. Conf. Fract., Beijing, China, 2013: pp. 1–10. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95433.
[15] I.C. Noyan, J.B. Cohen, Residual stress Measurement by diffraction and Interpretation, 1987.
[16] P.S. Prevey, A method of determening the elastic properties of alloys in selected crystallographic directions for x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, Adv. X-Ray Anal. 20 (1977) 345–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9981-0_30